hence they turned to the popular conception of the Chinese secret or private garden as anasymmetric, romantic work of art, resembling wild nature, to relieve their distress.
Symmetrical Temple of Heaven
Lovejoy noticed that "A turning-point in the history of modern taste was reached when the idealsof regularity, simplicity, uniformity, and easy logical intelligibility, were first openly impugned,when the assumption that true beauty is 'geometrical' ceased to be one to which 'all consented, asto a Law of Nature.' And in England, at all events, the rejection of this assumption seems,throughout most of the eighteenth century, to have been commonly recognized as initially due tothe influence and the example of Chinese art."Furthermore, in eighteenth century art, “regularity, uniformity, clearly recognizable balance andparallelism came to be regarded as capital defects in a work of art, and irregularity, asymmetry,variety, surprise, an avoidance of the simplicity and unity which render a whole designcomprehensible at a glance, took rank as aesthetic virtues of a high order.”These “natural” virtues, most evident in natural landscape paintings and the “natural” style of English gardens associated with the admiration for the ornamented Chinese garden, and Chinesearchitecture, were applied to other art forms including literature. That is, Sinomania or the Chinacraze strongly influenced the Romantic-Gothic trend. The key word, although it may not be of oriental origin, is
, meaning a Chinese form of asymmetrical art.So-called
is employed today in postmodern "acousmatic” music and "acousticecology," where the metaphorical garden is a soundscape. The soundscape may not be of anatural order, as it is, for example, in movies like Snow White and The Huntsman, where theharmonious soundtrack correlates with wild, natural scenes. The city itself, the
, emphasizesthe artificial aspect of an enclosed garden; paradises are sometimes portrayed as utopian cities if not concrete jungles; cities of god, the best places short of heaven, where the native wildness of humankind and its artifacts are not entirely restrained, where everyone can be happy and live inbliss despite occasional discordance. Composer Claude Schryer strives for the