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72024522 Eastern Desert Ware From Marsa Nakari and Wadi Sikait

72024522 Eastern Desert Ware From Marsa Nakari and Wadi Sikait

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Eastern Desert Ware from Marsa Nakari and Wadi SikaitAuthor(s): Hans BarnardSource:
Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt,
Vol. 42 (2005/2006), pp. 131-146Published by:
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Accessed: 05/04/2011 08:30
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Eastern DesertWarefromMarsaNakari
andWadiSikait
HansBarnardEastern DesertWare(EDW)referstoarecentlyidentifiedcorpusofhand-madeceramic vesselsthat have beendescribedatmanysitesin theEasternDesert,betweenthe Nile and the RedSea,insouthernEgyptandinnorthernSudan(Fig.I).1Most sherdsarefrom smallcupsandbowls,withproportionallythinwalls,thathavefrequentlybeen burnishedandareoften decorated withincisedorimpressedpatternsinsometimesremarkablyasymmetricpatterns.Ofthe 47 EDW sherdspresentedhere,9werefoundbythe Northern ArizonaUniversityexcavationsatMarsa Nakari(possiblytheGreco-Roman harborNechesia),onthe Red Seacoast,2and 38bytheUniversityofDelawarecon
servation,excavation andsurveyprojectinthe MonsSmaragdusarea,themainsourceofthegem
stoneberyl(emerald)intheRomanEmpire.3The firstcomprehensivedescriptionofEDW,althoughnotbyitscurrentname,derivedfrom therescueexcavations ofthe cemeteriesinWadiQitnaand KalabshaSouth,justwestofthe NileValleyandnowlost under thewaterofLakeNasser.4Sherdswithcomparabletechnologicalfeatures,formsanddecorative motifs have since beenidentified,ofteninretrospect,atseveral sitesinthe Nile Valley,including:KalabshaNorth,5Sayala,6Wadial-Arab,7QasrIbrim,8and much further south also
1H.Barnard,"EasternDesertWare,ashortintroduction,"Sudan & Nubia6(2002),53-57.H.Barnard,"Sire,iln'yapasdeBlemmyes.Are-evaluationofhistorical andarchaeologicaldata,"inJ.C.M.Starkey,ed.,PeopleoftheRed Sea.Proceedings oftheRed SeaProjectII,held in the BritishMuseum,October 2004.Society forArabian StudiesMonographsnumber 3. BAR InternationalSeries1395(Oxford, 2005),23-40.H.Barnard,"EasternDesert Ware.Finepotteryfromanaridwasteland,"EgyptianArchaeology28(Spring2006),29-30.H.Barnard,A. N.Dooley,andK. EFaull,"New dataonthe Eastern Desert WarefromSayala(Lower Nubia)inthe KunsthistorischesMuseum, Vienna,"?gyptenund Levante 15(2006),49-64.H. Barnard and A.A.Magid,"Eastern DesertWare from Tabot(Sudan).Morelinkstothenorth,"Arch?ologieduNilMoyen10(inpress).H.Barnard andP.J.Rose,"Eastern DesertWare from Berenike and KabMarfu'a,"inS.E.Sidebotham and W.Z.Wendrich, eds.,Berenike1999-2000.Report ofthe1999 and2000 excavation inBerenike,Siket and Wadi Kalalatand thesurveyoftheEgyptianEasternDesert,includingtheberylmines inWadi Sikait(LosAngeles,inpress).H.Barnardand E.Strouhal,"WadiQitnarevisited,"AnnalsoftheN?prstekMuseumPrague25(2004),29-55.S.E.Sidebotham,H.Barnard,L. A.Pintozzi,and R. S.Tomber,"Theenigmaof KabMarfu'a:preciousgemsinEgypt'sEasternDesert,"Minerva16,1(January/February2005),24-26.2J.A.Seeger,"Apreliminaryreportonthe 1999fieldseasonatMarsaNakari"JARCE38(2001),77-88.3J.L.Rivard,B. C.Foster,andS.E.Sidebotham,"Emeraldcity,"Archaeology55,3(May-June2002),36-41. S.E.Sidebotham,H. M.Nouwens,A.M.Hense,andJ.A.Harrell,"PreliminaryreportonarchaeologicalfieldworkatSikait(EasternDesert ofEgypt),and environs:2002-2003,"Sahara 15(2004),7-30,esp.figs.27-28.4E.Strouhal,WadiQitnaand Kalabsha-South(Prague,1984),esp.157-77,195-200,Tabs.31-34,Pis.66-70.Barnard andStrouhal,"WadiQitnarevisited?5H.Ricke,AusgrabungenvonKhor-DehmitbisBetel-Wali(Chicago,1967),esp.46-70,Tafs.23-28.bF.A.Bedawi,DieR?mischeGr?berfeldervonSayala-Nubien(Vienna,1976),esp.29-31,Abb.12,Taf.28/fig.2.Barnardetal.,"Eastern Desert WarefromSayala?K.Kromer,R?mischeWeinstubeninSayala(Unternubien)(Vienna,1967), esp.96-99,Abb. 30/4-5, 31,Tafs.16/fig.2, 32,34/3,37-35.Barnardetal.,"Eastern Desert WarefromSayala."7W.B.Emeryand L.P.Kirwan,Theexcavations andsurveybetween Wadi es-Sebua and Adindan 1929-31(Cairo, 1935),esp.117-22,figs.89,94/1, 99/5,103/13.8P.J.Rose,TheaftermathoftheRomanfrontierin Lower Nubia(UnpublishedPh.D.-thesisUniversityofCambridge,DarwinCollege,1992),esp.161-62,figs.7/75-78.Barnardetal.,"Eastern Desert WarefromSayala"161-62,fig.9.
131
 
132JARCE42(2005-2006)
Wadial-Tereif,9andKurgus.10East of theNile,in the Eastern Desertaswellas onthe Red Seacoast,similarsherdshave beenfoundin,amongothers,BirMinih,nBerenike,12anumberof tombsscattered intheWadiAlaqiarea,13severalsites withanunknownfunction,14and alsoinTabot,15muchfurthertothesouth(Fig.I).16Twoothersherdsthatmayormaynotbe EDWwereexcavatedatapost-MeroiticcemeteryatGabati(Sudan).17Someof the sherds foundatBirAbraqmayalso beEDW,asjudgedfrompublisheddrawings,18althoughtheywerethoughtbythesurveyorsof thatsitetobelongtothe Pan-Graveculture.Similarly,somesherds thatItentativelyidentifiedasEDWlaterappearedtobesecurelyassociated withthe C-Horizon(2300-1500b.c.e.).This illustratesthe difficultyofidentifyingexemplarsof this smalland diversecorpuswith almost'Neolithic'characteristics.Basedontheanalysisof associatedsherds andotherdatablefinds suchascoins,19and radiocarbondates,20thepeakof theproductionof EDWseemstohave beenduringthe4th-6thcenturiesC.E.,althoughitmayhave occurredasearlyasthe3rd,andaslateasthe 8thcenturyc.E.ThenameEDWwasinitiallychosenbecause of thedistributionofthefinds,incombinationwith thefabric and the
appearanceof thesherds,vis-?-vistechnology,decorationsand vesselshape(table2),whichrenderan
origininthe NileValleyunlikely.
9H.-?.Nordstr?m,"PotteryProduction,"in D. A.WelsbyandJ.R.Anderson, eds.,Sudan,Ancient Treasures. An exhibitionofRecent Discoveriesfromthe Sudan NationalMuseum(London,2004),248-73,esp.269,cat.no.255.10Barnard andStrouhal,"WadiQitnarevisited,"46-47,fig.8. Barnardetal.,"Eastern Desert WarefromSayala,"60-61,fig.9.11U.Luft,A.Alm?sy,M. A.Farkas,I.Furka,Z. Horv?th and G.Lass?nyi, "PreliminaryreportonthefieldworkatBirMinih,ArabianDesert,"MDAIK 58(2002),373-90,esp.384,fig.7/10-13.12Barnard andRose,"Eastern Desert WarefromBerenike and KabMarfu'a."J.W.Hayes,"Summaryofpotteryandglassfinds,"inS.E.SidebothamandW.Z.Wendrich, eds.,Berenike 1994.Preliminary reportofthe 1994 excavationsatBerenike(EgyptianRedSeacoast)and thesurveyoftheEastern Desert(Leiden,1995),33-36,esp.fig.13.J.W.Hayes,"Thepottery,"inS.E.SidebothamandW. Z.Wendrich, eds.,Berenike 1995.Preliminaryreport ofthe 1995 excavationsatBerenike(EgyptianRed Seacoast)and thesurveyofthe astern Desert(Leiden, 1996),147-78,esp.153,figs.6-15/1-6,6-19.P.J.Rose,"Reportonthe handmadesherds,"inS. E.Sidebotham and W. Z.Wendrich,eds.,Berenike 1994.Preliminaryreportofthe 1994 excavationsatBerenike(EgyptianRed Seacoast)and thesurveyofthe EasternDesert(Leiden, 1995),41-43. S.E.Sidebotham and W.Z.Wendrich,"Berenike: RomanEgypt'smaritimegatewaytoArabia andIndia,"EgyptianArchaeology8(1996),15-18,esp.16-17.S. E. Sidebothamand W. Z.Wendrich,"Berenike,Roms ToramRoten Meer nach Arabien undIndien,"Antike Welt32,3(2001),251-63,esp.256-57,Abb.14. R.S.Tomber,"Thepottery,"inS.E.Sidebothamand W.Z.Wendrich,eds.,Berenike 1996.Report ofthe 1996 excavationsatBerenike(EgyptianRed Seacoast)and thesurveyoftheEastern Desert(Leiden, 1998),163-80,esp.170.R. S.Tomber,"Thepottery,"in S. E. Sidebotham and W. Z.Wendrich,eds.,Berenike1997.Reportofthe1997excavationsatBerenike and thesurveyoftheEgyptianEasternDesert,includingexcavationsatShenshef(Leiden, 1999),123-59,esp.152,fig.5-15/75.13K.Sadr,A.Castaglioni,andA.Castaglioni,"Nubian Desertarchaeology:apreliminaryview,"Arch?ologiedu NilMoyen7(1995),203-35,esp.210-21,figs.10, 11,25.14S.E.Sidebotham,H.Barnard,and G.Pyke,"FiveenigmaticlateRoman settlementsinthe EasternDesert,"/ZL488(2002),187-225,esp.figs.20,23.Sidebothametal.,"TheEnigma ofKabMarfu'a."15The licenseto excavatethe site of TabotwasissuedbytheDepartmentofAntiquitiesand NationalMuseums, Khartoum,Sudan,toDr. AnwarAbdel-Magid.Test-excavations,carriedoutbythelicense holderin1994-95,weresponsoredbythe CommitteeforDevelopmentResearch and Education(NUFU)of theNorwegianCouncil of Universities withinthe framework oftheirSudanProgram(PhaseII:ArchaeologyProject).Thelicenseholder authorized Hans Barnardtostudyandpublishthepotteryfrom Tabot.16Barnard andMagid,"Eastern Desert WarefromTabot." A. A.Magid,R.H.Pierce,and K.Krzywinski,"Test excavationinthesouthernRed Sea Hills(Sudan):culturallinkagestothenorth,"Arch?ologiedu NilMoyen7(1995),165-70,esp.pi.V. A. A.Magid,"Ancientwaystationsinthe southern Red Sea Hills:a newdiscovery,"Sudan Notes and Records2(new series)(1998),112.A.A.Magid,"The site of Tabot.Anoldwaystationinthe southernRed SeaHills, Sudan,"inS.Wenig,ed.,NeuesteFeldforschungenimSudan und inEritrea. Akten desSymposiumsvom13bis 14 Oktober1999 in Berlin(Wiesbaden, 2004),155-72,esp.fig.6.17L.M.V.Smith,"Thepost-Meroiticand medievalpottery,"in D. N.Edwards,ed.,Gabati. AMeroitic,Post-Meroitic and MedievalCemeteryinCentral Sudan. Volume1(London, 1998),178-93,esp.figs.6.27-6.30.18K.Sadr,"Preliminaryreporton anarchaeologicalreconnaissanceinthe EasternDesert,southeastEgypt,"inC.Bonnet(ed.),Etude Nubiennes. Actes duVilecongr?sinternationald'?tudesnubiennes,3-8septembre1990. Volume II(Neuchatel, 1994),810,esp.9.19Strouhal,"WadiQitnaand Kalabsha South"265.20Magid,"The siteofTabot"157-59.Sadretal.,"Nubian Desertarchaeology"212,227.

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