Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
A New Low Stress Buck-boost Converter for Universal Input PFC Applications

A New Low Stress Buck-boost Converter for Universal Input PFC Applications

Ratings: (0)|Views: 63 |Likes:
Published by Chandragupta Mowave

More info:

Published by: Chandragupta Mowave on Jun 07, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/07/2012

pdf

text

original

 
A
New Low-Stress Buck-Boost Converter forUniversal-Input PFC Applications
1
Jingquan Chen, Dragan MaksimoviC and Robert Erickson
Colorado Power Electronics CenterDepartment of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulder, CO 80309-0425,
USA
Abstract
-
In converters for power-factor-correction (PFC),universal-input capability (ability to operate from any
AC
lievoltage, world-wide) comes with a heavy price in terms ofcomponent stresses and losses, size
of
components, andrestrictions on the output
DC
voltage.
A
new two-switchtopology is proposed to offer very significant performanceimprovements over the single-switch buck-boost converters(including flyback,
SEPIC,
and
Cuk
topologies) andconventional two-switch buck-boost cascaded converters. Theproposed converter has buck-boost conversion characteristic,switch conduction losses comparable to the
boost
converter, noinrush current problem, and potential for smaller inductor sizecompared to the boost converter.
I. INTRODUCTIONIt is well known that boost topology is highly effective
in
PFC applications, provided that the dc output voltage is closeto, but slightly greater than the peak
AC
input voltage
[l].
nuniversal-input applications, with the
RMS
nput line voltagein the 90-305V range, the output voltage has to be set toabout 450V. At low line (90V,), the switch conductionlosses are high because the input
RMS
current has the largestvalue, and the largest step-up conversion is required. Theinductor has to be oversized for large
RMS
current at low lineinput, and for the highest volt-seconds applied throughout theinput-line range.
As
a result, a boost converter designed foruniversal-input
PFC
applications is heavily oversizedcompared to a converter designed for a narrow range of inputline voltages. Furthermore, because of the large energystorage filter capacitor at the output, the boost converter hasinrush current problem that can only be mitigated usingadditional components.In universal-input PFC applications, the capability ofproviding both step-up and step-down conversion is attractivebecause the output DC voltage can be set to any value.However, conventional single-switch buck-boost topologies,including the plain buck-boost, flyback, SEPIC, and Cukconverters [2,
31
have greatly increased component stresses,component sizes, and reduced efficiency compared to theboost converter.
I
b)Fig.
1.
Cascaded two-switch buck-boost topologies: a) boost-buck-cascaded, b) buck-boost-cascaded
Q2
1
“IR0+
II
Fig.
2.
Boost Interleaved Buck-Boost Converter (BoIBB).
The boost and the buck converter are known to have thepotentials for highest efficiency and lowest componentstresses if their conversion characteristics meet theinputloutput specifications. Based on this observation, ourobjective was to construct a converter topology with twoindependently controllabe switches such that it can operate asa buck or as a boost in portions of the AC line cycle. Suchtwo-switch topologies could offer higher efficiency, reducedsize, and ability to arbitrarily choose the DC output voltage.
I
This
work is supported by Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor,
NY,
through Colorado Power Electronics Center
0-7803-6618-2/01/$10.002001
IEEE
343
 
Fig.
3.
Operating
modes
of
BoIBB: (a)
boost,
(b)
buck.
ILI
1L2
Two simple examples illustrated inFig.
1 
(a) and (b) are theconventional cascade connections of the buck and the boostconverters
[4,
1.
These converters can operate as
a
boostwhen
Qz
s always on, and as a buck when
Q,
s always
off.In
continuous conduction mode, the overall voltageconversion ratio is:
0
l
v
-
-d,
R,
.
VIR, VIR,
where
d,
and
dz
are the duty ratios of
Ql
and
Qz
respectively.We have found that other two-switch topologies with buck-boost characteristic are possible by adopting the convertersynthesis approach described in
[6].
One of these new DC-DC converters is the “Boost Interleaved Buck-Boost”(BoIBB) converter shown inFig.
2. 
Operating modes andbasic steady-state characteristics of this converter aredescribed in Section
II.
Operation of the BoIBB converter asa low-harmonic rectifier is discussed in Section III. Theresults for transistor and inductor conduction losses arederived in this section. Comparisons in terms of componentstresses, component conduction losses and magnetic sizesamong the new two-switch topology and boost, single-switchbuck-boost, and cascade connections
of
buck and boostconverters are presented in Section
N.
ection
V
describes aprototype
of
the new converter operating
as
a PFC rectifierwith universal-line input. Experimental results are providedfor both high-line and low-line input.TABLE I
BASIC FUNTIONS IN BOOST AND BUCK
MODES
Boost Mode Buck Modeactiveactive
1/(1-
d,)
I
Vrr
I
0
I
v,
-v
I
II.
OPERATING MODES
AND
STEADY-STATECHARACTERISTICS OF
THE
BOOST INTERLEAVEDBUCK-BOOST CONVERTERThe proposed Boost-Interleaved Buck-Boost (BoIBB)converter is shown inFig.
2. 
Unlike the cascaded topologies,the boost switch cell
(Qj
nd
Dj)
s interleaved with the buckswitch cell
(Q2
and
Dz).
n continuous conduction mode(CCM), the converter has the following overall voltageconversion ratio:If
Qz
is always on, the converter operates in boost mode,which is shown in Fig. 3(a). The average voltage on
CI
iszero. In this mode, the input current is divided through
L1
and
L2.
As a result, the total
RMS
current in
LI
and
LZ
s smallerthan the current in a single inductor.If
Ql
is
always off, the converter operates in the buck modeas shown in Fig. 3(b).
LI
and
CI
form a low-frequency filter.The average current through
LI
and
CI
s zero and the voltageon
CI
is equal to the difference between the input and theoutput voltage. The inductor
Lz
in the buck mode takes thesame role as the inductor in the simple buck converter. Thebasic steady-state results for both modes of operation aresummarized in TABLE I.
III.
OPERATION
OF THE
BOIBB CONVERTER AS
AN
IDEAL
RECTIFIERIn this section, we analyze operation of the
BoIBB
converter as a low-harmonic rectifier. Expressions for
RMS
currents
of
both transistors and inductors, and volt-seconds
of
inductors are derived
so
that conduction losses and magneticsizes can be evaluated.
In
PFC applications; the rectified input voltage is:
344
 
It
is desired that the output voltage is regulated at
a
constant
\
voltage
V
and that the input current
is(t)
is proportional to theinput voltage:
vg(o
V
(4)
vg
0)
i,
(r)
=
-
e
where the emulated resistance
Re
is constant for a givenoutput power.Fig. 4(a) shows the waveforms
of
the input and the outputvoltage in one half
of
a line period, for the case when theoutput voltage is chosen to be lower than the peak of theinput voltage. The converter operates in boost or buck modesaccording to the condition
of
the input and the output
DC
voltage. In the following analysis,
CCM
operation
is
Boost Buck
Boost
assumed.
I
t
-*
A.
Boostmode
In the time period
[O,
r,,,],
shown in Fig. 4, the input voltageis lower than the output voltage, the boost switch cell
(e,,
0,)
is active, and the buck cell
(e2,
2)
s inactive (Qz is alwayson).In quasi steady-state operation, the duty ratios of thetransistors
as
functions of time are:
(5)
d2(t)=1
The average inductor currents
are:
When
Q,
is conducting, its current is the sum
of
the twoinductors current.In the buck mode,
Q,
is always
off,
and the current through
L,
equals to a small current ripple. Therefore, the
RMS
currents of
Q,
nd
L,
re found from
(5)
and
(6)
n the boostmode. The results are given by
(7)
and
(8)
respectively:
Fig.
4.
(a)
Rectified input voltage and
DC
output voltage waveform,(b) duty
ratios
of
the boost and the buck cells in the
BoIBB
converteroperated
as
a
low-harmonic rectifier.
The volt-seconds applied to
L,
and
L2
during a switchingperiod are the same
as
the volt-seconds applied to theinductor in a simple boost converter, and
are
given by
v
.
s
=
d,
t)T,
.
,
(Z)
where
T,
is the switching period.
B.
Buckmode
(9)
In the time period
[t,
TaJ4],
where
To,
is the line period,
the
instantaneous input voltage is greater than the output voltage,the buck cell becomes active and the boost cell goes inactive
(Ql
is
always
off).
Ll
and
C,
orm
a
low frequency filterbetween the input and the output. They have insignificanteffects in quasi steady-state operation.The duty ratios of
Ql
and
Q2
an be expressed as:The inductor currents
are:
V;
sin
(w
)
VRe
ih
(t)
=
345

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->