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A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography

A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography

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Published by: danielmocanu on Dec 30, 2008
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02/24/2014

 
A HISTORY OF BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
BY EGON WELLESZFELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE OXFORDSECOND EDITIONREVISED AND ENLARGEDOXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1961-iii-Oxford University Press,
 Amen House, London E.C.4
GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNEWELLINGTON BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS KARACHI KUALA LUMPUR CAPE TOWN IBADAN NAIROBI ACCRA© Oxford University Press, 1961FIRST EDITION 1949 SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED 1961PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN-iv-
 
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
STUDIES in Byzantine music have made remarkable progress since the SYSTEMation of the first edition of this book in 1949. The field of research has been widened by the inclusion of melismatic chant and other formsof liturgical chant which we had hitherto not attempted to decipher. On the other hand, the number of scholarsworking on Byzantine music has increased and there are more musicologists interested in Byzantine music asan important branch of Christian Chant in general.For these reasons it was not sufficient to reprint this book; considerable enlargement and revision have provednecessary. The sections which needed most expansion were those on "'Byzantine Liturgy'" (pp. 130-45), on the"'Poetical Forms' I" (pp. 191-7), and "'Byzantine Musical Notation'" (pp. 246-60, 271-84, 305-8). A new sectionon "'Melismatic Chant and Psalmody'", a new field in our studies, had to be added (pp. 329-48, Appendix pp.40115). It was, furthermore, necessary to bring the 'Introduction' up to date (pp. 20-28). Minor additions were put together in an appended section under the title 'Excursuses', to which reference is made in the text by anasterisk 
*
.As mentioned in the preface of the first edition Byzantine musical manuscripts have neither a standardizedsystem of accents, nor of punctuation. They have, however, dots, carefully placed at the end of the lines of the poems. When examples are taken from manuscripts, the transcription follows the original as closely as possible.Inconsistencies between Greek and Latin forms of names and terms could not be avoided. Some authors, for example, whose articles are quoted, prefer the Latin form Hirmologium, others the Greek spelling
 Heirmologion
or 
 Hirmologion
.I am deeply grateful to the late Professor A. M. Friend, Jr., of Princeton University, who invited me to go in theSummer semester 1954 as a Visiting Scholar to the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection( Harvard University), in Washington, and to take part in the "'Symposium on Byzantine Liturgy and Music'".This stay and another one in the Winter semester 1956-7 enabled me to pursue my work in the DumbartonOaks Library, which specializes in Byzantine studies. My thanks are due to John Thacher, Director of theDumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, to Professor Sirarpie Der Nersessian, and to Professor -v-Questia Media America, Inc.
www.questia.com
 
Publication Information:
Book Title: A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography. Contributors: Egon Wellesz- author. Publisher: Clarendon Press. Place of Publication: Oxford. Publication Year: 1961. Page Number: v.E. Kitzinger, Director of Studies, who supported my work in every conceivable way. Miss Patricia Kean,Fellow of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, has again been very kind in helping me to prepare the manuscript for the press.The last word of gratitude is due to my dear friends and colleagues, Professor Carsten Höeg and Professor H. J. W.Tillyard, with whom I have had the privilege of co-operating for more than a quarter of a century on the
MonumentaMusicae Byzantinae
.E. J. W.
Oxford May 1958
Note on the Frontispiece
 
THE plate given as frontispiece is taken from the Typikon, the Rule for the Convent of Our Lady of Good Hope (τη +
  ̑
ς
περαγιας θεοτκου τη +
  ̑
ς Βεβαιας
λπιδος) at Constantinople. The Typikon was bought by George Wheeler, aFellow of Lincoln College, at Athens during his journey to the East in 1675-6 and given to the College together withother manuscripts. The first part of the Typikon
1
 was composed by Theodora, the daughter of the Sebastokrator Constantine Comnenus Palaeologus, and niece of the Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus (125982), the first Emperor of the Palaeologian dynasty.Theodora and her husband, the Great Stratopedarches John Comnenus Doukas Synadenos, were the founders of theConvent of Our Lady of Good Hope, and Theodora, under the name of Theodoule, became the first abbess. Thesecond part of the Typikon was written by her youngest daughter, the nun Eudokia, who enlarged the monastery. Thelast pages were added by later members of the family in 1397, 1398, and 1402.On folios one to nine we find a unique series of miniatures, representing the family of the founders, on the tenth theBlessed Virgin of Good Hope, on the eleventh Theodora-Theodoule as Abbess and on the last the Abbess together with the nuns. The plate here reproduced represents the Protosebastos Constantine Comnenus Raoul Palaeologus, ason-in-law of the foundress and his wife Euphrosyne Doukas Palaeologina, one of the daughters of the foundress.The miniature is an extremely fine example of Byzantine craftsmanship of the period in which Byzantine music hadreached its zenith. ____________________ 
1
The text of the Rule, followed by the history of the foundation of the Convent, is given by H. Delehaye in hisstudy "'Deux Typica byzantins de l'époque des Paléologues'", in
Mémoires, Deuxième Série
, tome xiii, of the
 Académie Royale de Belgique
( 1921), pp. 18-105 and 141-72.-vi-
FROM THE PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
THE idea of this book goes back to a course of lectures which I delivered thirty years ago in the University of Vienna. At that time studies in Byzantine music were only beginning and very few melodies had been transcribed.The subject, however, seemed to me so absorbing that I decided to continue my investigations and to study the wholecomplex of Eastern Christian music in order to get the right approach to its most important branch, the music, inceremonies and liturgy, of the Byzantine Empire. In the introductory chapter the reader will find a detailed report of these studies and their connexion with those of other scholars.There is a great difference between the scheme of this book as it was originally planned and its present form. A greatdeal of what I had to say was worked out in books and articles published since 1917, to which reference is made inthe bibliography. The most important decision was to deal with the origins of Christian music in a separate work, inwhich it was shown that both Byzantine and Western Chant ultimately derived from a common source, the music of the Synagogue, and that a close relationship existed between a number of Western melodies and the parallel Easternversions. This relationship between East and West, well known to liturgiologists, had to be made clear to students of the history of music by an analysis of the melodies of Latin hymns with Greek prototypes. I must therefore refer readers interested in these problems to this book,
 Eastern Elements in Western Chant 
, published in 1947 as the firstvolume of the American Series of the
Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae.This separate treatment of the origins made it possible to write a history of the development of Byzantine music and hymnography, and it is hoped that this may be of service not only to musicologists but also to students of Easterntheology and Byzantine civilization. I also found it necessary to outline the background, Greek and Hebrew, fromwhich Byzantine hymnography developed. I came to the conclusion that while both words and music were of Oriental origin they were judged by Patristic and Byzantine writers in the light of Platonic and Neoplatonic-vii-

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