Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Additional Hydraulic Structures

Additional Hydraulic Structures

Ratings: (0)|Views: 43|Likes:
Published by nour

More info:

Published by: nour on Jun 07, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/08/2012

pdf

text

original

 
Section 1100
Additional Hydraulic Structures
1 1 0 1
INTRODUCTION
Presented in this section are design guidelines and standards for hydraulicstructures which are appurtenant to both storm sewer outlet and open channeldesign. These guidelines and standards are generalized since each structureis unique, with the possible exception of channel drops. The user isencouraged to coordinate with the local entity and/or the CCRFCD whenplanning and designing these types of hydraulic structures.
1 1 0 2
CHANNEL DROPS AND ENERGY DISSIPATIONSTRUCTURES
The design of open channels often require the use of channel drop and/orenergy dissipation structures to dissipate excess energy created by gravityacting on the storm water flow. The most common use of these structures isto control the longitudinal slope of channels to keep design velocities withinacceptable limits (Section 700). These structures are also used to dissipateexcess energy at storm sewer outlets and to safely lower flood flow elevationsat abrupt drops in existing topography.For the purposes of this MANUAL, channel drop and energy dissipationstructures are classified into two groups.Channel drops are classified asstructures which shall only be used when the inflow channel flow is sub-critical(Froude Number,
F,
 
<
0.86).Energy dissipators and stilling basins, areclassified as structures which may be used for either sub-critical (F,
c
0.86) orsuper-critical (F,
>
1.13) inflow conditions.Presented in
Table 1101
is a listing of the structures discussed in this sectionalong with the hydraulic limitations under which these structures are allowedto be used within the Clark County area. The designer must obtain priorapproval from the local entity to use any of the listed structures outside of thestated limits. Also, if the designer desires to use a structure not discussed inthe section, pertinent detailed information on said structure must be submittedto the local entity for review and approval prior to designing the facility.Criteria and charts to aid in the design of these types of structures have beendeveloped based on many various hydraulic studies. Generalized standardsfor each type of channel drop based on these hydraulic studies are providedin the following sections.The reader should refer to the standard channel drop and energy dissipation
design references to become familiar with the detailed information available on
Adopted August
12,1999
HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL1102
 
Section 1100
-
Additional Hydraulic Structures
each structure prior to design. Suggested references include Peterka, 1978;USBR, 1987; and
USACE,
1970.
1102.1Channel Drop Structures
Presented in
Table 1101
are the types of channel drop structures allowed inthe Clark County area. By definition, channel drop structures are to be usedonly when the upstream channel flow is sub-critical. Presented in
Figure 1101
are the generalized profiles and nomenclature for
riprap
drop structures. Thisnomenclature is used throughout this section for discussion of specificstandards for each part of the structure. The nomenclature is also applicableto
gabion
drop structures.
1102.1
.l
Sloping
Riprap
Drop Structures
Presented in
Table 1102
and
Figure 1102
are the design standards anddetails for sloping
riprap
drop structures. The design chart for sloping
riprap
drop structures is based upon the unit discharge (q) of the approach channel,the
riprap
classification and the slope of the drop structure, and is valid onlyfor sub-critical flow in the approach channel (i.e., Froude Number (F,)
<
0.86).The unit discharge is found by taking the average or normal channel velocity(V,) for the
loo-year
discharge times the normal depth of the channel (Y
,).
The design chart is also based upon a prismatic channel section throughout,from the upstream channel through the drop to the downstream channel. The
maximum (steepest) allowable side slope for the
riprap
lined channel within the
drop structure is
4:l.
Flatter side slopes are allowable and encouraged whenavailable ROW permits.The classification of
riprap
chosen for the sloping portion of the structureshould be used throughout the structure, including the upstream anddownstream aprons, the channel bottom and side slopes. See Section 700 for
riprap
classification. The
riprap
should extend up the side slopes to a depthequal to 1 foot above the normal major storm flow depth projected upstreamfrom the downstream channel, or 1 foot above the critical depth in the slopingsection, whichever is greater
(see Figure 1102).
The maximum fall allowedat any one drop structure is 3 feet from the upper channel bottom to the lowerchannel bottom, excluding the trickle channel.A detailed description of the drop structure and the design procedureproceeding from upstream to downstream is given below based on
Figure 1102.
1102.1.1.1
Criteria 
a.
I
Approach Depth:The upstream and downstream channels willnormally be trapezoidal sections with low flow channels to convey
Adopted August
12,1999
HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL1103
 
Section 1100
-
Additional Hydraulic Structures
normal low water flows. The maximum normal depth,
Y,,
is 5 feet andthe maximum normal velocity, V,, is 7 fps.
b.
Low Flow Channel: The low flow channel shown in this case is arectangular concrete channel. The concrete channel ends at theupstream end of the upstream
riprap
apron. A combination cut-off walland foundation wall is provided to give the end of the low flow channeladditional support. The water is allowed to “trickle” through theupstream apron and through the crest wall (discussed below).
Riprap
low flow channels would simply feather into the upstream apron.
C.
Approach Apron:A IO-foot long
riprap
apron is provided upstream ofthe cutoff wall to protect against the increasing velocities andturbulence which result as the water approaches the sloping portion ofthe drop structure.The same
riprap
design and bedding should beused as specified for the portion of the drop structure downstream ofthe cut-off wall.
d.
Crest Wall: The crest wall is a very important part of the drop structure,and has several purposes, one of which is to provide a level rigidboundary section and distribute the flow evenly over the entire width ofthe structure. This is extremely important since the selection of the
riprap
is based upon the unit discharge, and without the wall, flowconcentrations could result which would greatly exceed the designdischarge. The crest wall is also used to reduce or eliminate seepageand piping along with the failures which can result from these problems.The low flow channel is ended at the upstream end of the upstreamapron to prevent the low flow channel from concentrating additionalwater at a point during high flows, thus exceeding the design unitdischarge. The apron and the crest wall combine to disperse theconcentrated flow. The low flows must be allowed through the crestwall to prevent ponding. A series of notches in the wall will allow thelow flows to do this. The size and number of notches will depend onthe design discharge of the low flow channel. Note that they are offsetfrom the trickle channel to permit flow of water through the upstreamapron. The voids in the
riprap
below the notch inverts are expected tosilt in rapidly or they can be filled at the time of construction.The two most common types of walls used will be reinforced concreteor sheet pile. The design of the wall is a structural problem which willnot be addressed here. The depth of the wall should be at least to the
bottom of the bedding material and could be deeper if necessary for the
control of piping.
I
The top of the crest wall should be placed a distance P above theupstream channel bottom.This is done to create a higher water
Adopted August
12,1999
HYDROLOGIC CRITERIA AND DRAINAGE DESIGN MANUAL1104

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->