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PC Assembly Language

PC Assembly Language

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Published by pejman
The purpose of this book is to give the reader a better understanding of
how computers really work at a lower level than in programming languages
like Pascal. By gaining a deeper understanding of how computers work, the
reader can often be much more productive developing software in higher level
languages such as C and C++. Learning to program in assembly language
is an excellent way to achieve this goal. Other PC assembly language books
still teach how to program the 8086 processor that the original PC used in
1981! The 8086 processor only supported real mode. In this mode, any
program may address any memory or device in the computer. This mode is
not suitable for a secure, multitasking operating system. This book instead
discusses how to program the 80386 and later processors in protected mode
(the mode that Windows and Linux runs in). This mode supports the
features that modern operating systems expect, such as virtual memory and
memory protection.
The purpose of this book is to give the reader a better understanding of
how computers really work at a lower level than in programming languages
like Pascal. By gaining a deeper understanding of how computers work, the
reader can often be much more productive developing software in higher level
languages such as C and C++. Learning to program in assembly language
is an excellent way to achieve this goal. Other PC assembly language books
still teach how to program the 8086 processor that the original PC used in
1981! The 8086 processor only supported real mode. In this mode, any
program may address any memory or device in the computer. This mode is
not suitable for a secure, multitasking operating system. This book instead
discusses how to program the 80386 and later processors in protected mode
(the mode that Windows and Linux runs in). This mode supports the
features that modern operating systems expect, such as virtual memory and
memory protection.

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Published by: pejman on Dec 31, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/07/2014

 
PC Assembly Language
Paul A. CarterJuly 23, 2006
 
Copyrightc
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 by Paul CarterThis may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety (including this au-thorship, copyright and permission notice), provided that no charge is madefor the document itself, without the author’s consent. This includes “fairuse” excerpts like reviews and advertising, and derivative works like trans-lations.Note that this restriction is not intended to prohibit charging for the serviceof printing or copying the document.Instructors are encouraged to use this document as a class resource; however,the author would appreciate being notified in this case.
 
Contents
1.1 Number Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Decimal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.2 Binary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.3 Hexadecimal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 Computer Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.1 Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.2 The CPU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2.3 The 80x86 family of CPUs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.4 8086 16-bit Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.2.5 80386 32-bit registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.6 Real Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2.7 16-bit Protected Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2.8 32-bit Protected Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.2.9 Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3 Assembly Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3.1 Machine language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3.2 Assembly language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.3.3 Instruction operands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.4 Basic instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.5 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.3.6 Input and Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.3.7 Debugging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.4 Creating a Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.4.1 First program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.4.2 Compiler dependencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.4.3 Assembling the code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221.4.4 Compiling the C code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.4.5 Linking the object files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.4.6 Understanding an assembly listing file. . . . . . . . . 23i

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