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History of Computer

History of Computer

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Published by: Jannet De Lara VergeldeDios on Jun 09, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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HISTORY OF COMPUTEROne of the greatest inventions of the time is obviously the computer. Billions of people use computers intheir daily life throughout the world. Throughout decades, computer has evolved from a very expensive andslow device to today's extremely smart machines with unbelievable processing power.No single person was credited with the invention of computer, many believe that Konrad Zuse and his Z1machine was the first in a long line of innovations that gave us the computer of today. Konrad Zuse was aGerman who was famous for the creation of the first freely programmable mechanical computing device in1936. Zuse's Z1 was created with a focus on 3 basic elements that are still necessary in today's calculators.Later, Konrad Zuse created Z2 and the Z3.The first of the MARK series computers were being built at Harvard. The MARK I began in 1944 and thiscomputer was huge filling in a room having a size of 55 feet long by 8 feet high. The MARK I could perform awide variety of calculations. It became a success and was utilized by the US Navy. It was in service till 1959.The ENIAC computer was one of most important achievements in computing. It was commissioned duringWorld War II and used by the US military. Vacuum tubes were used by this computer instead of electricmotors and levers for fast calculations. Its speed was about thousand times faster than any other calculatingdevice during that time. This computer was enormous and had a total cost of $500,000. The ENIAC was inoperation till 1955.RAM or Random Access Memory was first introduced in 1964. The first RAM was a metal detector platepositioned close to a vacuum tube which detected the difference in electrical charges. It was an easy way of storing computer instructions.There were plenty of innovations in the 1940s. The Manchester Baby was developed by TelecommunicationsResearch Establishment. It was the first computer to use a stored program and it went live in 1948. TheManchester MARK I went live in 1951 and showed tremendous progress against computers. Researchers hadfound that there was a huge chance of development for the computer.The UNIVAC which stands for Universal Automatic Computer was built by the creators of ENIAC. It was thefastest and most innovative computer capable of handling many computations. It was a masterpiece of itstime and was praised by public.IBM is known for creating the first personal computer widely affordable and available to the people. IBM 701was the first general purpose computer developed by IBM. The new computer language called FORTRAN wasused in the new 701. Other IBM computers also followed like the 704. The IBM 7090 also was a big successand it dominated business computers for the next 20 years. In the late 1970's and into 1980 IBM developed apersonal computer known as the PC. IBM has had a huge influence on the computers used today.In 1984, the Apple Macintosh was released and Apple computers dominated the market. It was not a quicksuccess. It went into production from January of 1984 to October of 1985.With the growth of personal computer market in the early and mid 1980s, many companies realized that GUIor Graphical User Interface was user friendly. This led to the development of an operating system calledWindows by Microsoft. The first version was called Windows 1.0 and later came Windows 2.0 and 3.0editions. Microsoft is increasingly popular today.Today, computers are extremely powerful and more affordable than ever. They have practically infiltratedinto every aspect of our lives. It is used as a powerful tool of communication and commerce. The future iscomputer is tremendous.
8,500 BC Bone carved with prime numbers found
1000 BC to 500 BC Abacus invented
1642 Blaise
Pascal’s invented adding machine, France
1822 Charles Babbage drafted Babbage Difference Engine, England
1835 Babbage Analytical Engine proposed, England
1843 Ada Byron Lovelace computer program to calculate Bernoulli numbers, England
1943 Turing COLOSSUS the first programmable computer, England
1946 ENIAC first electronic computer, U.S.A.
1951 UNIVAC first computer used by U.S. government, U.S.A.
1969 ARPANET Department of Defense lays groundwork for Internet, U.S.A.
1968 Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce found in Intel, U.S.A.
1977 Apple computers for consumers sold, U.S.A.
1981 IBM personal computers sold, U.S.A.
1991 World Wide Web consumer Internet access, CERN, Tim Berners-Lee Switzerland/France
2000 Y 2K Bug programming errors discoveredCurrent Technologies include word processing, games, email, maps, and streamingThe development of network technology and increases in processing capabilities for microcomputers madeconsumer Internet use possible by 1991. The computer evolution since then continues. New uses emergeevery year.
 HISTORY OF COMPUTERThe history of computing predates silicon microchips and CPUs by hundreds of years. The modern computerswe are all familiar with can trace their roots back to simple computational machines that seem far removedfrom what we think of as a computer today.Simple ComputersBy definition, a computer is any device capable of performing mathematical equations or calculations.Therefore, many simple devices such as an abacus (which dates back to at least 300 BCE) or a slide rule (firstmade in England in the 1630s) are the forerunners of today's modern computers.The Calculating ClockThe first machine that worked like a computer was a gear-powered German device dubbed the CalculatingClock. It was first created by Wilhelm Schickard in 1623, and it operated by pulling or pushing rods set insidea glass case. A similar device known as a Pascaline became popular in the 1640s. These two devices were theforerunners of a steam-powered "difference engine" that was a pet project of Charles Babbage in the 1820s.Harvard Mark-1In 1944, the Harvard Mark-1 computer is completed. This computer is closer to a modern computer, but isreally just a large calculator driven by a camshaft with no stored programs. This massive computer filled alarge room and was a joint effort between Harvard University and IBM.ENIACAnother important computer dating from the 1940s is the ENIAC, which was built between 1943 and 1945.ENIA (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) was a project of the University of Pennsylvania, andspanned many rooms and used nearly 20,000 vacuum tubes.The Dawn of the MicroprocessorA microprocessor is a chip that basically contains an entire computer (or at least a 1940's era computer) usinga integrated circuit. The first microprocessor was made by Intel in 1971. With the advent of this technology,the home computer become a possibility.The First PCThe first personal computer for home use was the Altair 8800, which contained an Intel 8080 microprocessor.However, this computer had to be assembled by the person who bought it.

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