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Biodiversity & Oil&Gas good practices _guidelines EBI2003

Biodiversity & Oil&Gas good practices _guidelines EBI2003

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Good practice in the prevention and mitigation of primary and secondary biodiversity impacts:
The practices noted in this document represent a mixture of "good", and, in some case "best" practices drawn from those that are well known and that have bben shown to be effective when used appropriately.
This document represents a "menu" of sound biodiversity conservation practices from which can be chosen the most appropriate measures that fit for the operational and geographic setting.
Good practice in the prevention and mitigation of primary and secondary biodiversity impacts:
The practices noted in this document represent a mixture of "good", and, in some case "best" practices drawn from those that are well known and that have bben shown to be effective when used appropriately.
This document represents a "menu" of sound biodiversity conservation practices from which can be chosen the most appropriate measures that fit for the operational and geographic setting.

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Published by: susCities on Jan 01, 2009
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05/09/2014

 
The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative
INTRODUCTION
The practices noted in this document represent a mixtureo “good,” and, in some cases, “best” practice drawn romthose that are well known and that have been shown to beefective when used appropriately. However, it should berecognized that “best practice” is constantly evolving andmust also be adapted to each specic site and its environ-ment. This document thereore represents a “menu” o sound biodiversity conservation practices rom whichcan be chosen the most appropriate measures that t theoperational and geographic setting.The impacts and related preventative and mitigativemeasures discussed cover the entire project liecycle, with the exception o the pre-bid phase, where there areno physical impacts. This document is primarily aimedat corporate ocers, site managers and other relevantpersonnel responsible or the management, monitoring and conservation o biodiversity throughout the liecycleo upstream oil and gas operations (see Figure 1).It is oten dicult to denitively label environmentaldegradation as a result o either primary or secondaryimpacts. Most primary impacts can be relatively eas-ily predicted with a standard Environmental and SocialImpact Assessment (ESIA) process, based on the pro-posed activity and an understanding o the surrounding ecosystem. However, although secondary impacts maybe predicted with a thorough ESIA process that includesbiodiversity issues and explicitly links environmentaland social issues, in some cases, the potential or suchimpacts may not be identied or realized until much laterin the project cycle, or even ater the project has beendecommissioned. The potential range o biodiversityimpacts that might be aced by a company are summa-rized in Box 1.
Good Practice in thePrevention and Mitigationof Primary and SecondaryBiodiversity Impacts
Good Practice in the Prevention and Mitigation of Primary and Secondary Biodiversity Impacts
Pre-bidExploration &AppraisalDevelopmentOperationsDecommissioning
AcquireConcessionAcquireConcessionProve CommercialHydrocarbonsProve CommercialHydrocarbonsStartProductionStartProductionEndProductionEndProductionRestorationRestorationRisk AssessmentStudiesRisk AssessmentStudiesSeismic &DrillingSeismic &DrillingDrilling &ConstructionDrilling &ConstructionProduction,Maintenance &TransportationProduction,Maintenance &Transportation
FIGURE 1. THE LIFECYCLE OF UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS
1
 
1
At the pre-bid stage, a company may choose not to proceed with investment and exit the project liecycle, because o biodiversity or other concerns. Fortechnical, economic or other reasons, a company may not continue activity ater completion o exploration and appraisal. In addition, at any point in theproject liecycle ater the pre-bid stage, a company may choose (or be required by the host government) to “exit” a project by divesting and transerring its legal interest to another operator. This possibility may raise a number o issues about the continuity o biodiversity-related philosophy, commitmentand practice rom one company to another, potentially jeopardizing sustainable biodiversity conservation and a company’s ability to maintain thereputational value o its activities related to biodiversity conservation (see
 Integrating Biodiversity into Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Processes
,Section 3.11, and
 Framework or Integrating Biodiversity into the Site Selection Process
or urther discussion o this issue).
photo credit: ©Smithsonian Institution Monitoring & Assessment of Biodiversity Program and Carlton Ward
 
2
The Energy & Biodiversity Initiative
BOX 1. SUMMARIZED BIODIVERSITY IMPACTS
2
PROJECTSTAGEPROJECT ACTIVITYPOTENTIAL BIODIVERSITY IMPACTS
Exploration:seismic,drilling, etc.
Onshore
:
Provision o access (airstrips, temporary roads)
Set up and operation o camps and y camps
Use o resources (water, aggregate)
Storage o uel
Clearing o lines and layout geophones
Shot hole drilling 
Use o explosives
Closure o shot holes, mud pits, camps and accessinrastructure
Mobilization o drill rig 
Drilling operations
 Well testing/aring 
Footprint impacts to habitats/ora
Disturbance o auna
Noise impacts on animal populations
Physical disturbance o soils and watercourses
Contamination o soils, surace and groundwater
Landscape modication, visual impact
Marine
 Vessel mobilization and movement
 Vessel emissions and discharges
Seismic operation
 Anchor rig/lower legs
Use o chemicals
Mud and cuttings discharge
Fuelling and uel handling 
Blow-out risk
Impact on sh
Disturbance o marine mammals
Disturbance o sediment and benthic populations
Contamination o sediment
Impact on seabirds, coastal habitats, etc. in event o oilspill
Construction
Onshore
Set-up and operation o construction camps
Provision o construction access
Resource use (water, timber, aggregate)
Import o heavy plant and machinery
 Vehicle movements
Earthmoving, oundations, excavation
Storage/use o uel and construction materials
Generation o construction wastes
Temporary and permanent loss o habitat andcomponent ecological populations due to temporary andpermanent ootprint
Soil erosion and reduction in productivity
Contamination o soils, surace and groundwater
Damage to cultural heritage
Marine
Mobilization and movement o vessels
 Vessel emissions and discharges
 Anchoring, piling 
Disturbance to sediment, benthic auna and otherseabed ora and auna
Loss o seabed habitat
Disturbance to marine mammals
Operation/Production
Onshore
Footprint
 Visible presence
Import and export o materials and products
Product handling, storage, use o chemicals and uel
Solid wastes arising 
Liquid euent
Emissions to atmosphere
Noise
Light
Long-term landtake efects on ecology
Efects on landscape and visual amenity
Soil and groundwater contamination
Efects on water quality, aquatic ecology and resourceusers
Efects on air quality, ecology and human health
Global warming 
Marine
Direct ootprint
Chemicals storage, handling and use
Emissions to atmosphere
Operational noise, helicopter supply and standby vesselmovement
Discharges to sea
Oil spill risk
Light
Loss o seabed habitat
Interruption o shing efort
Disturbance to seabirds and marine mammals
Efects on water quality and marine ecology
Efects on air quality and global warming 
Risk to marine and coastal resources in event o spill
2
 Adapted rom Shell’s drat
 Integrated Impact Assessment: Environmental Impact Assessment Module
, EP 95-0370, May 2002.
 
3
Good Practice in the Prevention and Mitigation of Primary and Secondary Biodiversity Impacts
In general terms, preventative measures should take pri-ority over those that are mitigative in nature; preventionmay be more ecient and cost-efective than mitigation,in addition to the reputational benets o avoiding im-pacts rather than addressing them once they have alreadyoccurred. However, prevention may not always be techni-cally easible or economically viable, and thereore, amixture o preventative and mitigative measures typicallyrepresents the optimum solution.In the tables that ollow, it is important to recognize thatnot all impacts will occur in every case, nor will all goodpractices identied be appropriate or implementationin all cases. Equally, as the practices identied in the ta-bles have been largely drawn rom the literature, they arenot all-inclusive. As best practice continues to develop sonew approaches and technology will become available. Inall cases, ull and complete compliance with all applica-ble laws and regulations must be the starting point or allphases o oil and gas activities. When and where appro-priate, company environmental policies and standardsmay mandate more stringent controls on operations.Good and best practice will ultimately be determined bycollective experience as applied to a unique set o condi-tions that comprise the local operating environment. Although this document is designed or use as astandalone document, other Energy and BiodiversityInitiative products ofer detailed guidance on key elementscontained within it. In particular,
 Integrating Biodiversity Conservation into Oil and Gas Development
contains asummary o the analysis and recommendations o theEBI, which orm the overall context or this document,and contains a number o examples and case studies o good practice in dealing with primary and secondaryimpacts. Other signicant EBI documents include
 Integrating Biodiversity into Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Processes
,
Opportunities or Beneting  Biodiversity Conservation
, and
 Negative Secondary Impacts rom Oil and Gas Development
(which includes an analysiso major actors that may lead to secondary impacts). While the Energy and Biodiversity Initiative has identieda large number o good practices rom the availableliterature, the continued improvement o this documentis dependent on the active participation o end-users.Thereore, we welcome any comments and suggestionsrelating to revisions and additions that will improve theusability, content and breadth and depth o applicationin the oil and gas sector and highlight new and existing good or best practice methods o impact prevention andmitigation. We are also actively seeking case studiesthat exempliy good and best practice in the oil and gasindustry or inclusion in uture updates o this document.
STRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENT
The analysis o potential impacts and preventative/mitigative measures is presented in our parts:
PART A –Primary Impacts: Onshore Operations
Table 1. Seismic activity
Table 2. Exploration and appraisal drilling 
Table 3. Field development
Table 4. Production
Table 5. Transmission
Table 6. Decommissioning 
PART B -Primary Impacts: Offshore Operations
Table 7. Seismic activity
Table 8. Exploration
Table 9. Field development
Table 10. Production
Table 11. Transmission
Table 12. Decommissioning 
PART C –Secondary Impacts: Onshore Operations
Table 13. Seismic activity
Table 14. Exploration and appraisal drilling 
Table 15. Field development
Table 16. Production
Table 17. Transmission
Table 18. Decommissioning 
PLEASE SEND COMMENTS, SUGGESTIONSAND QUESTIONS TO:
THE ENERGY & BIODIVERSITY INITIATIVEc/o Dr. Assheton Stewart CarterThe Center for Environmental Leadership in BusinessConservation International1919 M Street NW, Suite 600Washington, DC 20036USATel: +1 202 912 1449Fax: +1 202 912 1047Email:a.carter@celb.orgWebsite:www.TheEBI.org

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