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Maurice Last Roman Emperor

Maurice Last Roman Emperor

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Published by: timparker53 on Jun 10, 2012
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MAURICE LAST ROMAN EMPEROR
(forget about Justinian)Reign 13 August , 582
 –
27 November , 602(20 years, 106 days)Full name Flavius Mauricius Tiberius AugustusBorn 539Birthplace Arabissus, CappadociaDied 27 November, 602 (aged 63)Place of death ConstantinoplePredecessor Tiberius II ConstantineSuccessor PhocasConsort ConstantinaDynasty Justinian DynastyFather Paul
Maurice (Latin: Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Μαυρίκιος ΤιβζριοςΑὔγουστος) (539 –
27 November 602) was Byzantine Emperor from 582 to 602.A prominent general in his youth, Maurice fought with success against the Sassanid Persians. Oncehe became Emperor, he brought the war with Persia to a victorious conclusion: expanding theeastern frontier dramatically and marrying his daughter to Khosrau II, the Persian king.Maurice also campaigned extensively in the Balkans against the Avars - pushing them back acrossthe Danube by 599. He also conducted campaigns across the Danube, the first Emperor to do so inover two hundred years. In the West, Maurice established two large semi-autonomous provincescalled exarchates, ruled by exarchs, viceroys, of the emperor.In Italy, Maurice established the Exarchate of Ravenna in 584, the first real effort by the Empire tohalt the advance of the Lombards. With the creation of the Exarchate of Africa in 590, Mauricefurther solidified the empire's hold on the western Mediterranean.
 
His reign was troubled by financial difficulties and almost constant warfare. In 602, a dissatisfiedgeneral named Phocas usurped the throne, having Maurice and his six sons executed. This eventwould prove cataclysmic for the Empire, sparking a devastating war with Persia that would leaveboth empires helpless in the wake of the Muslim invasions.His reign is a relatively accurately documented era of Late Antiquity; in particular by the historianTheophylact Simocatta. Maurice also authored the Strategikon, a manual of war which influencedEuropean militaries for nearly a millennium. Maurice stands out as one of the last Emperors
who’s
 Empire still bore a strong resemblance to the Roman Empire of previous centuries.Contents1 Biography1.1 Origins and early life1.2 Persian War and accession to the throne1.3 Balkan warfare1.4 Measures of domestic policy1.5 Death1.6 Legacy1.7 Family relationsOrigins and early lifeMaurice was born in Arabissus in Cappadocia in 539, the son of a certain Paul. He had one brother,Peter, and two sisters, Theoctista and Gordia, later the wife of the general Philippicus.[1] Accordingto a legend, he was of Armenian origin, but the issue cannot be determined in any way.[2] Thehistorian Evagrius Scholasticus records a (likely invented) descent from old Rome.[1]Maurice first came to Constantinople as a notarius, and came to serve as a secretary to the comesexcubitorum (commander of the Excubitors, the imperial bodyguard) Tiberius, the future Tiberius II
 
(r. 578
 –
582). When Tiberius was named Caesar in 574, Maurice, was appointed to succeed him ascomes excubitorum.[1][3]Persian War and accession to the throneIn late 577, despite his complete lack of military experience, he was named as magister militum perOrientem, effectively commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army in the East, in the ongoing waragainst Sassanid Persia, succeeding the general Justinian. At about the same time, he was raised tothe rank of patricius.[4] He scored a decisive victory against the Persians in 581. A year later, hemarried Constantina, the Emperor's daughter. On August 13, he succeeded his father-in-law asEmperor. Upon his ascension he ruled a bankrupt Empire. At war with Persia, paying extremely hightribute to the Avars, and the Balkan provinces thoroughly devastated by the Slavs, Maurice'ssituation was tumultuous at best.Maurice had to continue the war against Persia. In 586, his troops defeated the Persians at Dara.Despite a serious mutiny in 588, the army managed to continue the war. In 590, Prince Khosrau IIand Persian commander-in-chief Bahram Chobin overthrew king Hormizd IV. Bahram Chobin claimedthe throne for himself and defeated Khosrau, who subsequently fled to the Roman court. Althoughthe Senate advised against it with one voice, Maurice assisted Khosrau to regain his throne with anarmy of 35,000 men. In 591 the combined Roman-Persian army under generals John Mystacon andNarses defeated Bahram Chobin's forces near Ganzak at the Battle of Blarathon. The victory wasdecisive; Maurice finally brought the war to a successful conclusion by means of a new accession of Khosrau.Subsequently, Khosrau married Maurice's eldest daughter Miriam and was probably adopted by theemperor. Khosrau further rewarded Maurice by ceding to the Empire western Armenia up to thelakes Van and Sevan, including the large cities of Martyropolis, Tigranokert, Manzikert, Ani, andYerevan. Maurice's treaty with his new son-in-law brought a new status-quo to the east territorially,enlarged to an extent never before achieved by the Empire, and much cheaper to defend during thisnew perpetual peace
 –
millions of solidi were saved by the remission of tribute to the Persians alone.Afterwards, Maurice imposed a union between the Armenian Church and the Patriarchate of Constantinople.Balkan warfareAfter his victory on the eastern frontier, Maurice was free to focus on the Balkans. The Slavs, havingpillaged the Byzantine Balkan provinces for decades, probably began settling the land from the 580son. The Avars took the strategically important fort of Sirmium in 582, using it as a base of operationsagainst several poorly defended forts alongside the Danube. In 584 the Slavs threatened the capital

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