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Structural Evaluation of Self Supporting Tower (Calculation)__Yoppy Soleman

Structural Evaluation of Self Supporting Tower (Calculation)__Yoppy Soleman

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Published by: Yoppy Soleman on Jun 10, 2012
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Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
15
B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES.
Yoppy Soleman, 2005
SPACETRUSSDESIGN
1. DESIGN SPECIFICATION1.1. Design Standard1) The design basis of the tower applied is EIA Standard EIA-222-E “Structural Standards for SteelAntenna Tower and Antenna Supporting Structure”. The fabrication and materials of the tower willbe according to the relevant Indonesian Standard.2) The self supporting tower has square cross sections.3) All the legs and bracings are made of equals legs angles steel.4) All the connections in the field are made with Steel Bolts, each fitted with one spring washer andnut.1.2. Tower Structure Design Condition1) Tower height : 42.0 meter ( location : Limboto, North Sulawesi )2) Maximum wind velocity (V) : V = 120 km/hour = 33.33 m/sec.3) Existing antennas loading ( see the drawing attachment ) :
2 (two) Planar type antennas at 42.0 m
1 (one) Planar type antennas at 38.0 m
1 (one) Paraboloid grid antennas 1.20 diameter at 35.0 m
1 (one) Paraboloid grid antennas 1.20 diameter at 42.0 m4) Proposed antennas loading ( see the drawing attachment ) :
1 (one) Paraboloid solid antenna 1.2 diameter at 38.0 m1.3. Loads1) Dead loadDead load is weight of tower, antenna, ladder, platform etc.2) Wind load on tower structureWind load calculation method on the tower and appurtenances are as followsF = qz . GH . CF . AE and not to exceed 2 . qz . GH. AGqz = 0.613 . KZ . V
2
Kz = ( z / 10 )
2/7
GH = 0.65 + 0.60 / ( h / 10 )
1/7
CF = 4.0 e
2
– 5.9 e + 4.0 ( square cross section )CF = 3.4 e
2
– 4.7 e + 3.4 ( triangular cross section )e = AF / AGAE = DF . AFWhere :F = Horizontal wind force ( N )qz = Velocity pressure ( Pa )GH = Gust response factor ( 1.00
Kz
1.25 )CF = Structure force coefficientAE = Effective projected area of structural component in one face ( m
2
)AG = Gross area of one tower face ( m
2
)Kz = Exposure coefficient ( 1.00
Kz
2.58 )V = Basic wind speed for the structure location ( m/s )
 
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
16
B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES.
Yoppy Soleman, 2005
z = Height above average ground level to midpoint of the section ( m )h = Ttotal height of structure ( m )e = Solidity ratioAF = Projected area of flat structural component in one face of the section (m
2
)DF = Wind direction factor1.00 for square cross section and normal wind direction1.00 + 0.75e for square cross section and 45
0
wind direction3) Wind load on AntennaWind load calculation method on the parabolic antenna is as follow :Fa = Ca x A x Kz x GH x V
2
Fs = Cs x A x Kz x GH x V
2
Kz = ( z /10 )
2/7
GH = 0.65 + 0.60 / (h/10)
1/7
Where :Fa = Axial Force (lb)Fs = Side Force (lb)Ca = Wind load coefficient for axialCs = Wind load coefficient for sideKz = Exposure coefficient ( 1.00
Kz
2.58 )z = Height above average ground level to midpoint of the section (m)h = Total height of the structure (m)A = Normal projected area of AntennaV = Wind velocity ( m/s )4)
Load combination
Herewith the following combinations are used below :a) DL + WL at 0 degree direction (with weight of existing antenna)b) DL + WL at 45 degree direction (with weight of existing antenna)c) DL + WL at 0 degree direction (with weight of existing + proposed antenna)d) DL + WL at 45 degree direction (with weight of existing + proposed antenna)Where : DL = Dead load weight of the structure and appurtenances.WL = Design wind load on antenna at above direction.1.4. Allowable unit stressThe unit stresses in the structures members do not exceed the allowable unit stresses for the materials asspecified in the AISC Standard (American Institute of Steel Construction Standard)1. Tension : Ft = 0.60 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)2. Shear : Fv = 0.40 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)3. Compressioni) On the gross section of axially loaded compression members when kl/r is less than Cc :(kl/r)
2
[ 1 - ----------]
Fy
2C
c2
Fa = ----------------------------------------------- ( kg/cm
2
)5/3 + [3/8(kl/r)]/8C
c
- [(kl/r)
3
 /8C
c
3]
 
Space Truss Design
Engineering Postgraduate Program Hasanuddin University
17
B. OF DUCTILE STEEL STRUCTURES.
Yoppy Soleman, 2005
2
2
EWhere: C
c
=
---------
Fy
ii) On the gross section of axially loaded compression members, when kl/r exceeds Cc :12
2
EFa = --------------- ( kg/cm
2
)23(kl/r)
2
4. BendingTension and compression on extreme fibers : Fb = 0.66 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)5. Tension on bolts : Ft = 0.60 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)6. Shear on bolts : Ft = 0.30 Fy ( kg/cm
2
)7. Bearing on bolts : Ft = 1.20 Fu ( kg/cm
2
)8. The maximum slenderness ratio (kl/r) are as follows :kl/r = 120 for compression members of legskl/r = 150 for compression members of diagonalskl/r = 200 for tension membersNotations :Ft = Allowable tensile stress ( kg /cm
2
)Fy = Minimum yield point ( kg /cm
2
)Fv = Allowable shear stress ( kg /cm
2
)Fa = Allowable compressive stress ( kg /cm
2
)k = Effective length factorl = Actual unbraced length of member ( cm )r = Governing radius of gyration ( cm )Cc = Column slenderness ratioE = Modulus of elascity of steel = 2,100,000 kg/cm
2
Fb = Allowable bending stress ( kg /cm
2
)Fu = Minimum tensile strength ( kg /cm
2
)1.5. MaterialsSteel materials to be used for the towers and appurtenances conform to the relevant Indonesian Standardsand/or Japanese Industrial Standard.
1)
Steel StructuralDescription Tensile Strength( kg/cm2 )Minimum Yield Point Fy( kg/cm2 )Bj 41 4100 2500SS 41 4100 25002) BoltsDescription Ft Fv Fv

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