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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: MOHAMMAD AGUS SALIM EL BAHRI on Jan 02, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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PsycholinguisticSummary of Second language acquisition (SLA)
A. Definition1. Second language acquisition (SLA)
SLA: The language plays an institutional and social in community or any languagelearned later in life.According to hand out of Mr. Imam G in Psycholinguistic # 7 said:SLA is any language / s a child learns (learning process) after the L1(Usually after the age of 5). Second language (SL) becomes umbrella terms for second and foreign languages (FL). Both differ in terms of on frequency of use and political affiliation of corresponding country.Frequency of use refers to the extent to which the language is used to fulfill the widerange of communicative needs of the speakers. The frequently used indicators areneeded of communication at home, smaller and larger community, publicservices, education, work place, and religious services.Political affiliation refers to the status that the language acquires in certainregion/country. In the case of English in Indonesia, the status was awardedthrough the political decision of ministry of education on behalf the Indonesiangovernment in 1967.The theories:
According to hand out of Mr. Imam G in Psycholinguistic # 7 said:The theory claims that language learning undergoes the same process of learning of other fields, that habit formation (
). Briefly the
 process involves providing linguistic.
timuli in order to that the learner produces
esponse which is appropriate or correct to the S. If the learner can do so theteacher should give
einforcement. But when the learner can not do so, or makesinappropriate or incorrect response, the teacher should nor give R. she / he shouldcorect the mistake to avoid the formation of bad habit (habit of making incorectforms). To help learner produces the expected or correcr 
the provision of 
should be repeated over and over, called over learning. So as the case with production of R by the
learner. By means of this the bond between
andR becomes authomatic, when this is established the new habit formation iscompleted.To facilitate te habit formation process, behaviorism applies principles of contrastive analysis (
). They believe that as the learner has established L1, thiecognitive capacity is filled with system of L1. When the learner wants to learnanother habit, that is habit of L2, the L1 system dominates the process. Thismeans that all forms, or rules, simliar to the L1 will be easily learned or established. But when the forms are different, they become potential problems(inference) in learning.Therefore, CA belives that the learning process will be facilitated whenthere is an analysis of the system of both of languages (L1 &L2). Based oncomparison, some same rules or forms will facilitate the learning, whiledifferences will become constraints. Teacher should be aware that establishingdifferent form would take more thought and energy.In classroom, the form of behaviorism can be seen from some methods of language teaching, especially Audio Lingual Method (ALM) or Aural- OralMethod (AOM). The teaching procedure in these methods consists of teacher  providing
, learner makes
, teacher gives
. Habit formed in First language caninterfere with L2 learning. Audiolingualism (stimuli and reinforcement.)
b. Innatism
According to hand out of Mr. Imam G in Psycholinguistic # 8 said:The theory claims that every child was born with some innate capacities,one of which is specially used to process languages. It means the nature of 
language learning is different from learning other fields. This specific capacityconsists of underlying abstract representation or rules or grammar, which is alsocalled univesal rules of language or more popularly called universal grammar (UG). This consists of a set of potential rules that becomes materialized (masteryof language rules) after they get (largely subconscious) exposure of languageinput.Two important isssues concerning this theory deals with access to the UG,and age:There is split argument on the first issue. Some innatists believe that learnerscannot access UG to process L2 the same way as they do for L1. This is because the facility of UG has been used in the FLA. (This is called noaccess) some other innatists contend that learners still get the same accessto UG to process L2 the same way as they do in L1,( this is called fullaccess). Some others still believe that to some extent learners still canaccess UG to process L2 but not as much as when they process L1,( this iscalled limited access). Therefore, the SLA process is said to undergo fromtheir acquired modalisties. i.e. L1.The second issue concerns with age. Briefly stated, problem revolves around biological condition, especially the brain capacity of the power to processthe language. In ordinary word, in can be formulated whether langugelearning process differ as a function of age. On the other hand, adults learnthe language the same or different way from children. Answer to this problem should be referred to the basic claim that the children were bornwith some innate capacity, especially LAD consisting of UG. UG is biological factor and it can change with age. The answer to this problemrelates to access and age. E. Lenneberg (1967) proposed a critical periodhypothesis (CPH) for language learning in that biological conditionchanges at puberty. The biological condition after puberty makes adult-learners hard to learn any language to develop complete mastery of secondlanguage in the same way as children do for their L1. Lamandela, althoughclaims that such access is different between children and adult, believes

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