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Published by: Pankaj Kumar on Jun 11, 2012
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Production and Operations Management Unit 6
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 102
Unit 6 Total Quality Management
6.1 IntroductionLearning Objectives6.2 Quality Control as a SystemDimensions of qualitySystems view of quality6.3 Quality Control TechniquesQuality at the sourceQuality control toolsAcceptance sampling6.4 Quality Based Strategy6.5 Total Quality Management (TQM)Introduction to TQMApproaches to TQMDeming wheel
Juran’s quality triology
Crosby’s absolutes of quality
Taguchi’s quality loss function
 6.6 Towards TQM
ISO 9000 as a Platform
Working With Intranet6.7 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)6.8 Summary6.9 Terminal Questions6.10 Answers to SAQs and TQsAnswers to Self Assessment QuestionsAnswers to Terminal Questions6.11 References
6.1 Introduction
Quality has become a very important dimension of operations management.Producing the items in required quantities at the right time is not enough tosatisfy the customers. Customers demand that quality be incorporated in theproduct and in the service that goes along with it. You will appreciate thatwithout quality every other thing loses relevance. Thus, quality is a strategyfor survival and for expending the markets. Quality is a marketing strategy to
Production and Operations Management Unit 6
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 103
enter a market or to compete with existing manufacturers. Quality is thefou
ndation for achieving customer’s satisfaction. Brands get created as a
consequence of that. Following are the important aspects which improve thequality of a product.
Performance and Services 
The basis of quality lies in the performance ofthe product and the perception of service. The ingredients or componentswhich improve the performance of the product have to be built into thedesign processes and operations. Also, proper care has to be taken whiledelivering services either independently or as a part of the product.
Identifying Defects 
Statistical tools are used to identify sources ofdefects in the processes. They are eliminated in a systematic method,keeping records of the improvements that were possible. Everyopportunity to improve the system is used. Identifying the defects at theoperating levels even before they occur improves the performance andthe quality of the product. This encourages involvement andcommitment, which are essential for improving quality on a continuousbasis. This helps the organisation to get better feedbacks from thecustomers.
As cost has also become a major dimension of customersatisfaction, efficiencies have to be built in all operations. Production,material handling, maintenance, marketing, packaging, supply chain, andafter sales service have to become efficient by adopting policies.
Innovation has become vital to the development andprogress of the organisations. This enables an organisation to aspire tobe a leader in its field. All this is possible with commitment for qualityacross all functions and all activities of the organisation. The principlesinvolved and the processes implemented to achieve them, form the partof the study of Total Quality Management.
Certification is another aspect of quality as it gives public
recognition to the company’s attainments. It improves compliance to the
processes and improves performance of the employees. Asmeasurements and observations are made by a competent and neutralbody, the certification agency bias is not seen and the compensation and
reward systems are seen to be transparent. Customer’s perception of 
Production and Operations Management Unit 6
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 104
adequacy, if not excellence, goes a long way in establishing long termrelationships which is the dream of every organisation.
Learning Objectives
By the end of this unit, you will be able to:
Explain the importance of quality
List the different methods by which quality is sought to be achievedusing various tools
Recognise the concepts of TQM
Recall the importance of designing and robust manufacturing systems
6.2 Quality Control as a System
6.2.1 Dimensions of quality
Before we consider quality control, let us see what quality means.
Quality isinherent in the product or service that is rendered to the customer. Since weare attempting to measure the same, we will look into those aspects ofquality called dimensions of quality.
(See Figure 6.1 for Dimensions of quality)
Quality of Design 
: A product is designed keeping in view of the
customers’ requirement. For designing a pro
duct the manufacturer orservice provider should be aware of the specifications of differentfeatures required to incorporate in the product. Some of the features tobe known for designing a product include
material, dimensions, andcharacteristics. The quality of the product is introduced by the design ofthese features. Inspection of the manufacturing processes is of utmostimportance in ensuring quality of performance.2.
Conformance to Design 
: Conformance to design is the degree to whichthe manufactured product or delivered service meets the parametersthat have been incorporated in the design. It verifies that the variability inthe process is within acceptable limits so as not to compromise thefunctionalities that the designer wanted.3.
Utilisation Conditions 
: Utilisation conditions refer to the necessity ofthe customer being informed / trained so that the purpose for which theproduct was made is realised by the customer in total, thus enhancinghis satisfaction. Instructions, manuals, help-lines, and on-site training by
the manufacturers’ personnel improve the perception of quality.

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