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EF Lens Work III - Part 10

EF Lens Work III - Part 10

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Published by: ahhoi on Jan 02, 2009
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10/27/2010

 
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Optical Terminology 
 
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What is ‘light’?
Light is a physical phenomenon whichinvolves creating vision by stimulating theoptic nerves, and can be broadly definedas a type of electromagnetic wave.Types of electromagnetic radiation varyaccording to wavelength. Starting fromthe shortest wavelengths, electromagnetic radiation can be classified into gammarays, X rays, ultraviolet light rays, visiblelight rays, infrared light rays, far-infraredlight rays, microwave radiation, ultrashort wave radiation (VHF), short waveradiation, medium wave radiation (MF)and long wave radiation. In photography,the most utilised wavelengths are in thevisible light region (400nm~700nm).Since light is a type of electromagnetic radiation, light can be thought of as atype of wave in the category of “light waves.” A light wave can be regarded asan electromagnetic wave in which anelectric field and magnetic field vibrate at right angles to each other in a planeperpendicular to the direction of propa-gation. The two elements of a light wavewhich can actually be detected by thehuman eye are the wavelength andamplitude. Differences in wavelength aresensed as differences in colour (withinthe visible light range) and differences inamplitude are sensed as differences inbrightness (light intensity). The thirdelement which cannot be detected by thehuman eye is the direction of vibrationwithin the plane perpendicular to thelight wave’s direction of propagation(polarized light).
Refraction
Aphenomenon whereby the propagationdirection of a ray of light changeswhenthe light passes from one medium such asavacuum or air into a different mediumsuch as glass or water, or vice versa.
Index of refraction
Anumerical value indicating the degreeof refraction of a medium, expressed bythe formula n = sin i/sin r.“n” is aconstant which is unrelated to the light ray’s angle of incidence and indicatesthe refractive index of the refractingmedium with respect to the mediumfrom whichthe light impinges.For general optical glass, “n” usuallyindicates the index of refraction of theglass with respect to air.
Dispersion
Aphenomenon whereby the opticalpropertiesof a medium varyaccordingto the wavelength of light passingthrough the medium. When light entersalens or prism, the dispersioncharacteristics of the lens or prism causethe index of refraction to vary depend-ing on the wavelength, thus dispersingthe light. This is also sometimes referredto as colour dispersion.
Extraordinary partial dispersion
The human eye can sense mono-chromatic light wavelengths within therange of 400nm (purple) to 700nm (red).Within this range, the difference in indexof refraction between two different wavelengths is called partial dispersion.Most ordinary optical materials havesimilar partial dispersion characteristics.However, partial dispersion charac-teristics differ for some glass materials,such as glass, which has larger partialdispersion at short wavelengths, FK glasswhich features a small index of refrac-tion and low dispersion characteristics,fluorite, and glass which has largerpartial dispersion at long wavelengths.These typesof glass are classified ashaving extraordinary partial dispersioncharacteristics. Glass with this property isused in apochromatic lenses tocompensate chromatic aberration.
Reflection
Reflection differs from refraction in that it is a phenomenon whichcauses a portionof the light striking the surface of glass orother medium to break off and propagatein an entirely new direction. The directionof propagation is the same regardless of wavelength. When light enters and leavesalens whichdoesnot have an anti-reflection coating, approximately 5% of the light is reflected at the glass-airboundary.The amount of light reflecteddepends on the glass material’s index of refraction.
Coating (P.174)
What is light to photography?Basic light-related phenomena
Figure-1 Approaching the human eyeFigure-2 Approaching the human eyeFigure-3 Light RefractionFigure-4 Light Dispersion by A PrismFigure-5 Light Reflection
WavelengthVLF
(1kHz)(1MHz)(1GHz)(1THz)
LFMFRadiowaveskmmm
0.77
RedOrangeYellowGreenBlueViolet
0.640.590.550.490.430.38
1nm1m1HFVHFUHFSHFEHF
VLF(Ultra-long wave)LF(Long wave)MF(Medium wave)HF(Short wave)VHF(Ultra-short wave)UHF(Extremelyultra-short wave)SHF(Centimeter wave)EHF(Millimeter wave)
InfraredUltravioletXrays
1eV1keV1MeV
MicroFrequencies
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Sub millimeterwave
Far infrared
Near infrared
VacuumultravioletVisible light raysm
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AmplitudeWavelengthDirection of propagationElectric fieldMagnetic fieldIncidentangleRefractionangleir
Ordinary optical glass
RRYBRYYBB
Special optical glassExtraordinarypartial dipersionNormal reflectionAbnormal reflectionFlat surface, flat smooth surfaceRough surfaceCenter line
 
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Diffraction
Aphenomenon in which light wavespass around the edges of an object andenter the shadowed area of that object,caused because of the wavelike nature of light. Diffraction in a photographic lensis known for causing flare (diffractionflare) which occurs when light rays bendaround the edges of the diaphragm.Although diffraction flare tends toappear when the diaphragm diameter issmaller than a certain size, it actuallydepends not only on the diameter of thediaphragm but also on various factorssuch as the wavelength of the light, thelens’s focal length and the aperture ratio.Diffraction flare causes reductions inimage contrast and resolution, resultingin a soft image. The laminateddiffraction optical elements developed byCanon control the direction of the light by intentionally creating diffraction.
Optical axis
Astraight line connecting the centerpoints of the spherical surfaces on eachside of a lens. In other words, the opticalaxis is a hypothetical center lineconnecting the center of curvature of eachlens surface. In photographic lensescomprised of several lens elements, it is of utmost importance for the optical axis of eachlens element to beperfectly alignedwith the optical axes of all other lenselements. Particularly in zoom lenses,which are constructed of several lensgroups that move in a complex manner,extremely precise lens barrel constructionis necessary to maintain proper opticalaxis alignment.
Paraxial ray
Alight ray which passes close to theoptical axis and is inclined at a very smallangle with respect to the optical axis. Thepoint at which paraxial rays converge iscalled the paraxial focal point. Since theimage formed by a monochromatic paraxial ray is in principle free of aberra-tions, the paraxial ray is an important factor in understanding the basic operation of lens systems.
Principal ray
Alight ray which enters the lens at anangle at a point other than the opticalaxis point and passesthrough the centerof the diaphragm opening. Principallight rays are the fundamental light raysused for image exposure at all dia-phragm openingsfrom maximumaperture to minimum aperture.
Parallel pencil of rays
Agroup of light rays traveling parallel tothe optical axis from an infinitely far point.When these rays pass through a lens, theyconverge in the shape of a cone to form apoint image within the focal plane.
Ray tracing
Use of geometrical optics to calculatethe condition of various light rayspassing through a lens. Calculations areperformed using powerful computers.
Aperture/effective aperture
The aperture of a lens is related to thediameter of the group of light rayspassing through the lens and deter-mines the brightness of the subject image formed on the focal plane. Theoptical aperture (also called the effectiveaperture) differsfrom the real apertureof the lens in that it depends on thediameter of the group of light rayspassing through the lens rather than theactual lens diameter.When a parallelpencil of rays enters a lens and a groupof these rays passes through thediaphragm opening, the diameter of thisgroup of light rays when it enters thefront lens surface is the effectiveaperture of the lens.
Stop/diaphragm/aperture
The opening which adjusts the diameterof the group of light rays passing throughthe lens. In interchangeable lenses usedwith single lens reflex cameras, thismechanism is usually constructed as aniris diaphragm consisting of several bladeswhich can be moved to continuously varythe opening diameter. With conventionalSLR camera lenses, the aperture isadjusted by turning an aperture ring onthe lens barrel. With modern cameralenses, however, aperture adjustment iscommonly controlled by operating anelectronic dial on the camera body.
Circular aperture diaphragm
With normal aperture diaphragms,closing the aperture causes its shape tobecome polygonal. A circular aperturediaphragm, on the other hand,optimises the shape of the blades toachieve a nearly perfect circle evenwhen considerably stopped down fromthe maximum aperture. Photographywith a lens that is equipped with acircular aperture diaphragm achieves abeautiful blur effect for the background,because the point source is circular.
Automatic diaphragm
The general diaphragm operation systemused in SLR cameras, referring to a type of diaphragm mechanism whichremainsfully open during focusing andcomposition to provide a bright viewfinderimage, but automatically closes down tothe aperture setting necessary for correct exposure when the shutter button ispressed and automatically opens up againwhen the exposure is completed. Althoughconventional lensesuse mechanicallinkages for controlling this automatic diaphragm operation, EF lenses useelectronic signals for more precise control.You can observe this instantaneousaperture stop-down operation by lookinginto the front of the lens when the shutteris released.
Distance of incidence
Distance from the optical axis of aparallel ray entering a lens.
Entrance pupil/exit pupil
The lens image on the object side of thediaphragm, i.e. the apparent aperture seenwhen looking from the front of the lens, iscalled the entrance pupil and is equivalent in meaning to the lens’ effective aperture.The apparent aperture seen when looking
Optical terminology related tolight passing through a lens
Figure-7 Optical Terminology Related To LightPassing Through A LensFigure-6 Light Diffraction
Parallel pencil of raysParaxialrayParaxial focal pointDistance ofincidencePrincipal rayApertureFocalpointAperturediameterOpticalaxisEffectiveaperture
DiffractedlightStraight advancing lightCenter maximum
  p er   t    ur   e
Diffraction phenomenonseen on waters surfaceIncident lightLight intensity distributionFirst light ringFirst shadow ring

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