Aphenomenon in which light wavespass around the edges of an object andenter the shadowed area of that object,caused because of the wavelike nature of light. Diffraction in a photographic lensis known for causing flare (diffractionflare) which occurs when light rays bendaround the edges of the diaphragm.Although diffraction flare tends toappear when the diaphragm diameter issmaller than a certain size, it actuallydepends not only on the diameter of thediaphragm but also on various factorssuch as the wavelength of the light, thelens’s focal length and the aperture ratio.Diffraction flare causes reductions inimage contrast and resolution, resultingin a soft image. The laminateddiffraction optical elements developed byCanon control the direction of the light by intentionally creating diffraction.
Astraight line connecting the centerpoints of the spherical surfaces on eachside of a lens. In other words, the opticalaxis is a hypothetical center lineconnecting the center of curvature of eachlens surface. In photographic lensescomprised of several lens elements, it is of utmost importance for the optical axis of eachlens element to beperfectly alignedwith the optical axes of all other lenselements. Particularly in zoom lenses,which are constructed of several lensgroups that move in a complex manner,extremely precise lens barrel constructionis necessary to maintain proper opticalaxis alignment.
Alight ray which passes close to theoptical axis and is inclined at a very smallangle with respect to the optical axis. Thepoint at which paraxial rays converge iscalled the paraxial focal point. Since theimage formed by a monochromatic paraxial ray is in principle free of aberra-tions, the paraxial ray is an important factor in understanding the basic operation of lens systems.
Alight ray which enters the lens at anangle at a point other than the opticalaxis point and passesthrough the centerof the diaphragm opening. Principallight rays are the fundamental light raysused for image exposure at all dia-phragm openingsfrom maximumaperture to minimum aperture.
Parallel pencil of rays
Agroup of light rays traveling parallel tothe optical axis from an infinitely far point.When these rays pass through a lens, theyconverge in the shape of a cone to form apoint image within the focal plane.
Use of geometrical optics to calculatethe condition of various light rayspassing through a lens. Calculations areperformed using powerful computers.
The aperture of a lens is related to thediameter of the group of light rayspassing through the lens and deter-mines the brightness of the subject image formed on the focal plane. Theoptical aperture (also called the effectiveaperture) differsfrom the real apertureof the lens in that it depends on thediameter of the group of light rayspassing through the lens rather than theactual lens diameter.When a parallelpencil of rays enters a lens and a groupof these rays passes through thediaphragm opening, the diameter of thisgroup of light rays when it enters thefront lens surface is the effectiveaperture of the lens.
The opening which adjusts the diameterof the group of light rays passing throughthe lens. In interchangeable lenses usedwith single lens reflex cameras, thismechanism is usually constructed as aniris diaphragm consisting of several bladeswhich can be moved to continuously varythe opening diameter. With conventionalSLR camera lenses, the aperture isadjusted by turning an aperture ring onthe lens barrel. With modern cameralenses, however, aperture adjustment iscommonly controlled by operating anelectronic dial on the camera body.
Circular aperture diaphragm
With normal aperture diaphragms,closing the aperture causes its shape tobecome polygonal. A circular aperturediaphragm, on the other hand,optimises the shape of the blades toachieve a nearly perfect circle evenwhen considerably stopped down fromthe maximum aperture. Photographywith a lens that is equipped with acircular aperture diaphragm achieves abeautiful blur effect for the background,because the point source is circular.
The general diaphragm operation systemused in SLR cameras, referring to a type of diaphragm mechanism whichremainsfully open during focusing andcomposition to provide a bright viewfinderimage, but automatically closes down tothe aperture setting necessary for correct exposure when the shutter button ispressed and automatically opens up againwhen the exposure is completed. Althoughconventional lensesuse mechanicallinkages for controlling this automatic diaphragm operation, EF lenses useelectronic signals for more precise control.You can observe this instantaneousaperture stop-down operation by lookinginto the front of the lens when the shutteris released.
Distance of incidence
Distance from the optical axis of aparallel ray entering a lens.
Entrance pupil/exit pupil
The lens image on the object side of thediaphragm, i.e. the apparent aperture seenwhen looking from the front of the lens, iscalled the entrance pupil and is equivalent in meaning to the lens’ effective aperture.The apparent aperture seen when looking
Optical terminology related tolight passing through a lens
Figure-7 Optical Terminology Related To LightPassing Through A LensFigure-6 Light Diffraction
Parallel pencil of raysParaxialrayParaxial focal pointDistance ofincidencePrincipal rayApertureFocalpointAperturediameterOpticalaxisEffectiveaperture
DiffractedlightStraight advancing lightCenter maximum
A p er t ur e
Diffraction phenomenonseen on waters surfaceIncident lightLight intensity distributionFirst light ringFirst shadow ring