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Sejarah Konflik di Timor Leste

Sejarah Konflik di Timor Leste

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Published by Shahril Budiman

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Published by: Shahril Budiman on Jun 11, 2012
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Bagian 3: Sejarah Konflik
Bagian 3: Sejarah Konflik.......................................................................................................................1Bagian 3: Sejarah Konflik.......................................................................................................................53.1 Pendahuluan................................................................................................................................53.2 Penjajahan Portugis atas Timor-Leste........................................................................................6Tinjauan.........................................................................................................................................6Kedatangan Portugis.....................................................................................................................7Konsolidasi kekuasaan kolonial....................................................................................................8Pemerintahan Portugis dan resistensi rakyat Timor ....................................................................9Timor Portugis pada Abad ke-20................................................................................................10Gerakan internasional untuk dekolonisasi dan posisi Portugal.................................................11Rencana pembangunan Portugis dan berkembangnya sentimen anti penjajah......................123.3 Perubahan di Portugal dan proses dekolonisasi......................................................................13Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................13MFA dan Revolusi Bunga...........................................................................................................13Dampak Revolusi Bunga di Timor Portugis...............................................................................15Pembentukan partai-partai politik di Timor Portugis..................................................................153.4 Suasana internasional dan kebijakan Indonesia terhadap Timor Portugis.............................18Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................18Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa dan Timor Portugis.....................................................................18Indonesia dan komunitas internasional......................................................................................19Kebijakan Indonesia terhadap Timor Portugis...........................................................................203.5 Proses dekolonisasi dan partai-partai politik............................................................................24Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................24Permulaan kesadaran politik.......................................................................................................24Susunan partai-partai politik.......................................................................................................25Perkembangan dan ketegangan internal...................................................................................26Partai-partai politik bersiap menghadapi konfrontasi bersenjata..............................................27Fretilin dan ancaman komunisme...............................................................................................29“Misi mustahil” Lemos Pires........................................................................................................31Koalisi antara UDT dan Fretilin...................................................................................................323.6 Keterlibatan Indonesia yang semakin besar di Timor Portugis: destabilisasi dan diplomasi.34Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................34Operasi Komodo dan Peningkatan operasi rahasia militer .......................................................34Diplomasi Indonesia....................................................................................................................353.7 Gerakan Bersenjata 11 Agustus dan konflik bersenjata internal.............................................40Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................40UDT Melancarkan Gerakan Bersenjata 11 Agustus..................................................................41Kegagalan melakukan negosiasi: konflik bersenjata internal....................................................43UDT mundur ke perbatasan........................................................................................................44Tanggapan Portugal terhadap konflik internal...........................................................................45Tanggapan Indonesia..................................................................................................................453.8 Timor Portugis di bawah Administrasi Fretilin..........................................................................47Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................47
 
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Fretilin mengisi kekosongan.......................................................................................................47Tahanan dan kekerasan politik...................................................................................................48Memulihkan ketertiban................................................................................................................50Pemerintahan..............................................................................................................................50Balibo: Indonesia meningkatkan intensitas operasi militer ........................................................523.9 Deklarasi kemerdekaan sepihak Fretilin, dan tanggapannya..................................................53Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................53Latar belakang deklarasi kemerdekaan sepihak Fretilin...........................................................54Deklarasi kemerdekaan..............................................................................................................55Reaksi atas deklarasi kemerdekaan...........................................................................................57Invasi besar-besaran di ambang pintu.......................................................................................593.10 Invasi Besar-Besaran..............................................................................................................59Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................59Keputusan Indonesia untuk menginvasi dan melakukan perang terbuka................................60Dili mempersiapkan strategi Pertahanannya.............................................................................61Berbagai persiapan militer Indonesia: Operasi Seroja..............................................................62Invasi Dili dan Baucau.................................................................................................................62Tanggapan PBB terhadap invasi besar-besaran.......................................................................663.11 Pengalaman rakyat Timor pada awal pendudukan dan upaya Indonesia untuk meresmikanintegrasi............................................................................................................................................68Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................68 ABRI melakukan konsolidasi; Indonesia mendirikan “pemerintahan sementara”....................68Fretilin mundur, pembantaian tahanan.......................................................................................69Pergerakan ABRI, awal tahun 1976...........................................................................................70Pengalaman rakyat Timor pada awal pendudukan...................................................................71Fretilin menyusun kekuatan kembali..........................................................................................71Indonesia Meresmikan Integrasi.................................................................................................72Operasi Seroja berlanjut—pesawat Bronco OV-10 buatan AS mulai digunakan.....................73Kebuntuan militer, akhir 1976.....................................................................................................743.12 “Pengepungan dan penghancuran”: tahap akhir Operasi Seroja 1977-79...........................76Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................76Penduduk sipil di gunung-gunung..............................................................................................76Kapasitas ABRI terkuras dan kepercayaan diri awal Fretilin....................................................77 AS memimpin dalam mempersenjatai kembali militer Indonesia..............................................77Perpecahan internal Fretilin dan pembersihan berdarah..........................................................78 ABRI mengintensifkan operasi militer: pengepungan dan penghancuran, Agustus 1977sampai Agustus 1978..................................................................................................................79Penyerahan diri: turun dari Matebian.........................................................................................833.13 Penyerahan diri, pemukiman kembali dan kelaparan............................................................85Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................85Penyerahan dan eksekusi tahanan............................................................................................85Kamp-kamp penampungan sementara......................................................................................86Kamp penahanan jangka panjang dan strategi keamanan ABRI.............................................87Wilayah tertutup...........................................................................................................................87Bantuan ICRC dan CRS.............................................................................................................89 Ataúro sebagai pulau penjara.....................................................................................................89Berbagai kamp Penahanan ditutup............................................................................................90
 
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3.14 Operasi Keamanan..................................................................................................................92Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................92Situasi di Dili dan di seluruh Timor-Leste, 1979-1980...............................................................92Pemberontakan pertama: Dili, Juni 1980...................................................................................93“Pagar betis”: Operasi Kikis........................................................................................................94Konsekuensi operasi...................................................................................................................953.15 Membangun kembali Resistensi.............................................................................................97Tinjauan.......................................................................................................................................97Sejumlah anggota Fretilin yang bertahan setelah serangan 1978-1979..................................97Menyusun kekuatan kembali......................................................................................................98Konferensi Reorganisasi Nasional pada bulan Maret 1981......................................................99Pertumbuhan Gerakan Perlawanan.........................................................................................101Gerakan perlawanan di bawah pimpinan Xanana Gusmão: menuju persatuan nasional.....101Gereja Katholik..........................................................................................................................1023.16 Gencatan senjata tahun 1983 dan masa sesudahnya........................................................104Tinjauan.....................................................................................................................................104Pemilu Indonesia di Timor-Leste: 1982....................................................................................104Perubahan personil sipil dan militer Indonesia, dan berbagai aksi Resistensi.......................105Pendekatan baru militer Indonesia: negosiasi.........................................................................105Gencatan Senjata......................................................................................................................106Pengangkatan Benny Moerdani sebagai Panglima ABRI: 1983.............................................107Monsignor Lopes dicopot..........................................................................................................107Gencatan senjata dirongrong....................................................................................................107Berakhirnya Gencatan Senjata.................................................................................................1093.17 Konsolidasi dan awal perubahan: 1984-1991......................................................................111Tinjauan.....................................................................................................................................111Perkembangan Resistensi........................................................................................................111Represi dan pemenjaraan.........................................................................................................113Kebangkitan gerakan pemuda klandestin................................................................................113Gereja Katolik............................................................................................................................114Situasi di Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa...................................................................................115Kunjungan Paus Yohanes Paulus II.........................................................................................116Jakarta membuka Timor-Leste.................................................................................................117Perkembangan Internasional menjelang akhir dasawarsa 1980-an.......................................1183.18 Titik Balik................................................................................................................................119Tinjauan.....................................................................................................................................119Pembantaian Santa Cruz, 12 November 1991........................................................................119Dampak internasional Santa Cruz............................................................................................121Penangkapan Xanana Gusmão................................................................................................122Jaringan klandestin pelajar .......................................................................................................123Rencana Damai CNRM dan inisiatif-inisiatif diplomatik...........................................................125Kasus Pengadilan Internasional: Portugal vs Australia, 1991-95...........................................125Hadiah Nobel Perdamaian, 1996..............................................................................................126Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa...................................................................................................1273.19 Dari Reformasi ke pengumuman tentang Konsultasi Rakyat..............................................128Tinjauan.....................................................................................................................................128Jatuhnya Soeharto....................................................................................................................129

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