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Quotations in the New Testament.

Quotations in the New Testament.

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A very scholarly study of New Testament quotes from the Old Testament.
A very scholarly study of New Testament quotes from the Old Testament.

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Published by: GLENN DALE PEASE on Jun 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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QUOTATIOS I THE EW TESTAMET.BYCRAWFORD HOWELL TOYPROFESSOR I HARVARD UIVERSITY1884PREFACE.o proof is needed of the value of the quotations in the ewTestament : it is obvious that they help us very greatly to understandthe material and the character of the ew-Testament thought. Theyfurnish a connecting link between the two great religious creations of the Hebrew race, Israelitism and Christianity. The Hebrew sacredliterature, representing the most important period of the old nationalreligious development, came to a close about 150 B.C., after runningits course of nearly seven centuries; and two hundred years laterarose the Christian literature of the ew Testament, embodying theideas of the new movement set on foot by Jesus of azareth. OldTestament and ew Testament, though substantially identical in theirreligious conceptions, represent very different conditions of civiliza-tion and culture; they are separated from each other not only bycenturies of time, but also by great social and p>olitical changes.Throughout these changes, however, the sacred volume of the nation,the Old Testament, preserved its authority as divine revelation, andsupreme law of faith and life, for the Christian evangelists and apos-tles, as well as for the Jewish rabbis. How, then, we naturally ask, dothe expounders of the new religious movement deal with the sacredbooks of their nation, the writings of the ancient prophets and priestsand sages? What is their method of interpretation? how do theyunderstand the instructions, exhortations, and predictions of the past?VI PREFACE.how do they fit the old order of things into the new? It is thequotations that give us answers to these questions. Fortunately,the ew-Testament writers cite the Old Testament so freely, that we
can be at no loss to understand what view the leaders of the greatreligious revolution took of their relation to their national past, andwhat use they made of the religious material of its literature. Thereare few books of the Old Covenant that are not quoted in the ew,and almost no line of thought in the former, whether theological,ceremonial, or ethical, that is not appropriated by the latter, andsomehow woven into its own fabric of thought.'The literature of the subject is not inconsiderable, as may be seenfrom the list of works given at the end of the Introduction. I havemade free use of the most important of these, and desire here toacknowledge my obligations to them in genefal : where any thingspecific has been taken from an author, reference is made to him inthe immediate connection.Many of these books contain valuable material ; but none of themgive what is needed by an increasingly large public, namely, a gen-eral view of the texts, and a precise comparison of the quotation withits original. Only a few go over the whole ground, and these arebased in part on defective biblical texts and unsound exegesis. Theaim of the present work is to discuss all the quotations in the ewTestament, from the Old Testament and from other sources, to give' The books not quoted or alluded to are Obadiah, Ezra, ehemiah, Esther ;from the book of Ruth, one fact (David's genealog)', in Matt, i.) is taken, andChronicles was, perhaps, in part also authority for the genealogies ; there ismention of an incident from the book of Jonah (Matt. xii. 40; Luke xi. 30), andan allusion to Judges (in Heb. xi.) ; and there are, perhaps, allusions to Lamen-tations and Song of Songs. Of uncanonical books, there is one citation fromEnoch (in Jude), and some further use of its material (in Revelation), and anapparent reference to Maccabees (in Heb. xi.).PREFACE. viithe original texts with English translation, and as exact an explana-tion as possible of the various passages, so that the precise thoughtof the Old Testament may be set alongside of the use made of it inthe ew Testament, and the reader thus have all the material beforehim, and be able to draw his own conclusions. Though I may notalways have given a satisfactory account of the relation between thequotation and its original, or settled the questions respecting theHebrew and Greek texts, my object will have been gained if I shallhave succeeded in fairly stating the exegetical problems involved,
and pointing out the proper method of solution.The material might be arranged in two ways : the theological orhermeneutical principles might be stated, and illustrated by examples ;or, the quotations might be discussed separately, one by one. Theformer would make pleasanter reading ; but I have chosen the latter,because it seemed necessary that the separate passages should beexamined, with the original texts, before the principles involved couldbe understood. The texts are arranged, therefore, in the order inwhich they occur in the English Authorized Version of the ew Tes-tament; except that, when one Old-Testament passage is quotedseveral times, all the quotations are treated together under the headof the first-occurring text. The full indexes at the end of the book will enable the reader to find not only any quoted passage, but alsoall Scripture-passages referred to, and all Hebrew and Greek wordsdiscussed. I have not thought it necessary to give statistical tables,but these may easily be made out from the indexes. At some futuretime I may be able to take up the first of the modes of treat-ment above mentioned, and examine in detail the principles of thequotations.o honest student of the Bible can object to a careful and hon-est sifting of its words, and no believer in God can fear that such aprocedure will do harm. In the following discussions I have spokenplainly, yet never, I hope, irreverently. My aim has been to stateviii I^t£FACE.what I hold to be the exact truth ; and I ask, from those to whomsome of the views here presented may seem strange, a careful exami-nation of the grounds on which they are based. I believe that theethical-religious power of the Bible will be increased by perfectly free,fair-minded dealing, and by a precise knowledge of what it does ordoes not say. As its friends, we ought not to wish any thing else thanthat it should be judged strictly on its own merits ; for to wish anything else is a confession of weakness. There is too much reason tosuppose that the belief which is so prevalent, in the mechanical infalli-bility of the Bible, is seriously diminishing its legitimate influence overthe minds and the lives of men.C. H. T.ITRODUCTIO.

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