where x(t) =
The stability characteristic of the system is dependent onthe Eigen values of the state matrix A as follows :a)
A real Eigen value corresponds to a non-oscillatorymode. A negative real Eigen value represents a decayingmode, while a positive real Eigen value represents aperiodic instability.b)
A pair of complex Eigen value represents anoscillatory mode. The real component of the Eigen valuegives the damping, and the imaginary component givesthe frequency of oscillation. A negative real partrepresents a damped oscillation whereas a positive realpart represents oscillation of increasing amplitude.
Design of Power System Stabilizer
4.1 Overview of PSS structures
Shaft speed, electrical power and terminal frequencyare among the commonly used input signals to the PSS.Alternative forms of PSS have been developed usingthese signals. This section describes the practicalconsiderations that have influenced the development of each type of PSS as well as its advantages andlimitations .
Stabilizers employing a direct measurement of shaftspeed have been used successfully on hydraulic unitssince the mid-1960s. Among the importantconsiderations in the design of equipment for themeasurement of speed deviation is the minimization of noise caused by shaft run-out (lateral movement) andother causes Conventional filters couldnot remove suchlow-frequency noise without affecting theelectromechanical components that were beingmeasured. Runout compensation must be inherent to themethod of measuring the speed signal. In some earlyapplications, this was achieved by summing the outputsfrom several pick-ups around the shaft, a technique thatwas expensive and lacking in long-term reliability. Thestabilizer, while damping the rotor oscillations, couldreduce the damping of the lower-frequency torsionalmodes if adequate filtering measures were not taken. Inaddition to careful pickup placement at a location alongthe shaft where low-frequency shaft torsionals were at aminimum, electronic filters were also required in theearly applications. While stabilizers based on directmeasurement of shaft speed have been used on manythermal units, this type of stabilizer has severallimitations. The primary disadvantage is the need to usea torsional filter. In attenuating the torsional componentsof the stabilizing signal, the filter also introduces a phaselag at lower frequencies. This has a destabilizing effecton the "exciter mode", thus imposing a maximum limiton the allowable stabilizer gain. In many cases, this istoo restrictive and limits the overall effectiveness of thestabilizer in damping system oscillations. In addition,the stabilizer has to be custom-designed for each type of generating unit depending on its torsionalcharacteristics. The integral-of-accelerating power-basedstabilizer, referred to as the Delta-
)stabilizer throughout this section, was developed toovercome these limitations .
. Frequency-Based (
Historically terminal frequency was used as theinput signal for PSS applications at many locations inNorth America. Normally, the terminal frequency signalwas used directly. In some cases, terminal voltage andcurrent inputs were combined to generate a signal that
approximates the machine‟s rotor speed, often referredto as “compensated” frequency. One of the advantages
of the frequency signal is that it is more sensitive tomodes of oscillation between large areas than to modesinvolving only individual units, including those betweenunits within a power plant. Thus it seems possible to
obtain greater damping contributions to these “inter
area” modes of oscillat
ion than would be obtainablewith the speed input signal. Frequency signals measuredat the terminals of thermal units contain torsionalcomponents. Hence, it is necessary to filter torsionalmodes when used with steam turbine units. In thisrespect frequency-based stabilizers have the samelimitations as the speed-based units. Phase shifts in theac voltage, resulting from changes in power systemconfiguration, produce large frequency transients thatare then transferred to
the generator‟s field voltage an
doutput quantities. In addition, the frequency signal oftencontains power system noise caused by large industrialloads such as arc furnaces .
4.1.3 Power-Based (
Due to the simplicity of measuring electrical powerand its relationship to shaft speed, it was considered tobe a natural candidate as an input signal to earlystabilizers. The equation of motion for the rotor can bewritten as follows:
= inertia constant
= change in mechanical power input
= change in electric power output
= speed deviationIf mechanical power variations are ignored, thisequation implies that a signal proportional to shaftacceleration (i.e. one that leads speed changes by 90°) isavailable from a scaled measurement of electricalpower. This principle was used as the basis for manyearly stabilizer designs. In combination with both high-pass and low-pass filtering, the stabilizing signal derived