Networks provide users with the ability to share files, printers, resources, and mail, asthough they resided locally on the user’s computer. Computer networks have become soimportant in some settings that they provide the basis for nearly all business transactions.Networks make it possible to share documents and images with people all around the world,literally at the click of a mouse.Computer networking is a very broad topic. There are many types of networks, fromsimple peer-to-peer ones to huge intranets and even the Internet itself. Each type of network canemploy a different combination of network OS, cabling, protocols, and security measures. Thesecombinations are known as the network’s architecture. In fact, CompTIA’s Network+ certificationis based entirely on networking concepts and network architectures. Obviously, a discussion of the full spectrum of network details and specifications is too broad in scope to be contained inthis chapter. However, as a computer technician, you should be aware of basic networkingconcepts so that you can troubleshoot minor problems on networks that have already beenestablished. This chapter focuses on basic concepts of physical networks; Chapter 11 focuses onnetwork protocols and how to configure Windows for network access.
7.1 Classification of Networks
Network is broadly classified into three types based on the
distance, how they areconnected
how they are related.
The classifications are given below
(Based on the distance between two computers)
LAN, MAN and WAN are the three types of network which are based on distancebetween the computers.
Local Area Network
The Local Area Network (LAN) is by far the most common type of data network. As thename suggests, a LAN serves a local area (typically the area of a floor of a building or within aroom)
.LANs are defined by three primary characteristics: topology, protocol, andmedia. A typical LAN may share resources such as printers, files, or other resources on the LAN.
Fig 7.11: Local Area Network