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Bahan Ajar Konten Uji Kompetensi B.Inggris

Bahan Ajar Konten Uji Kompetensi B.Inggris

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Published by Misterheri Piwan
Every teaching activities has its own nature and characteristics. Both give spirit and condition to the teaching and learning undergo. So, understanding on both will give strong basic to the process of teaching and learning.
Every teaching activities has its own nature and characteristics. Both give spirit and condition to the teaching and learning undergo. So, understanding on both will give strong basic to the process of teaching and learning.

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Published by: Misterheri Piwan on Jun 13, 2012
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11/18/2012

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English Language AspectsA. Rational
Globalization era has entered the life of human being. Countries have been interdependentone another. Information technology is very important as a media for exchanging ideas andinformation. It influences to cooperate with one another. The cooperation does not depend on howagreements are obeyed by all parties using an international language. The language is English as aneffective means of communication in global social life. Thus, English as an international languagehas become an important factor to be mastered by many people, including Indonesian people.Thus, it is simply inferred to be a developing country, Indonesia supported by the Culture andEducation Ministry gives an ample opportunity to those who teach in Junior High School toimprove their English mastery.
B. Objectives
The objectives of this module is that the training participants are able to1. Identify the definition of English skills2. Describe the importance of language elements that support English skills
C. English Language Aspects1. Listening
1.1. What is listening?a.Listening is the ability to understand what others say and why they have said it. b.Listening comprehension requires listeners to interpret all messages they hear and see
c.
Effective listening means being able to understand the language (grammatical ability) andthe way the language is used in different situations (interactional ability)d.Listening comprehension is the psychomotor process of receiving sounds waves throughthe ear and transmitting nerve impulses to the brain.e.Listening is an active process of understanding the text by activating various kinds of knowledge, background, grammatical, phonological and experience.
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1.2. Different kinds of listeningThere are two kinds of listening; those are monologue and dialogue.In monologue thelistener does not require to respond to a message. It is also called an informational listening.This is where information is communicated to the listener. Monologue can be planned (such asspeech, news report, weather forecast or other prewritten material) or unplanned (such asimpromptu lectures, a description of something, emergency announcement etc). Monologuesare example of one-way communication.Dialogue requires listeners to respond to what is being communicated. The goal of dialogue is to develop interaction between people. The listener communicates something back to the speaker. For example, greetings between friends, a discussion at a business meeting, andgiving or receiving instructions at work.1.3. An Interactive Model of Listening ComprehensionListening is an interactive process as the brain acts on the impulses, bringing to bear anumber of different cognitive and affective mechanisms. There are eight processes (Clark &Clark, 1977, Richard, 1983 and Brown, 1994) involved in comprehension:1.The hearer processes “raw speech” and holds an “image” of it in short term memory(such as phrases, clauses, cohesive markers, intonation etc)2.The hearer determines the type of speech event, such as a speech, news report, debate,informal conversation etc to interpret the message.3.The hearer infers the objective of the speaker by considering the type of speech event,context and content. To find out whether the speaker intends to persuade, to request, toinform, to deny etc.4.The hearer activates background knowledge (schemata theory) relevant to the subjectin order get the idea of the context.5.The hearer assigns a literal meaning to the utterance, which usually involves a set of semantic interpretations.6.The hearer assigns an intended meaning to the utterance. It depends on the ablility tomatch perceived meaning with intended meaning.
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7.The hearer determines whether information should be retained in short term memory if the information needs a quick respond or long term memory when the hearer has to process the information.
8.
The hearer deletes the form in which the message was originally received. The abilityto retain important information conceptually and deletes unimportant words or phrases.Based on the eight processes involved in listening comprehension, to becomeeffective listeners, students need to know:a. how words sound (English words are written and spoken in differentways compare to Indonesian ones) b.what they mean (perceived meaning or intended meaning)c.how they are put together in sentences and expressionsd.how to predict the purpose and content of message from other clues, such as tone of voices, facial expressions, gestures and other body languagee.How to use their knowledge of vocabulary and grammar,and their backgroundknowledge of typical messages and situations. 
1.4. Listening difficulties
Common listening difficultiesListening difficulties often occurs when the listening material is too complex andthe listener does not have the skills to manage the information in the text.The complexity of listening material is related to:-the type of text, for example a monologue, a dialogue, spontaneousconversation and a news report-the amount of new information presented to the listener -the number of topics or messages being expressed, andthe number of speakers-the situation of the conversation, such as in spontaneous conversation thatinvolves frequent topic and speaker changes and overlapping voices-the familiarity of the topic, situation, vocabulary and grammar 
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