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Nursing Theories

Nursing Theories

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Published by: Dennis Nabor Muñoz, RN,RM on Jan 03, 2009
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04/09/2015

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INTRODUCTION TO NURSINGTHEORIES
INTRODUCTION
Nursing has made phenomenal achievement in the last century that has lead tothe recognition of nursing as an academic discipline and a profession. A movetowards theory-based practice has made contemporary nursing more meaningfuland significant by shifting nursing’s focus from vocation to an organisedprofession. The need for knowledge-base to guide professional nursing practicehad been realised in the first half of the twentieth century and many theoreticalworks have been contributed by nurses ever since, first with the goal of makingnursing a recognised profession and later with the goal of delivering care topatients as professionals.A theory is a group of related concepts that propose action that guide practice. A
nursing theory
is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptionsor propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and projecta purposive, systematic view of phenomena by designing specific inter-relationships among concepts for the purposes of describing, explaining,predicting, and /or prescribing..Based on the knowledge structure levels the theoretical works in nursing can bestudied under the following headings:Metaparadigm (Person, Environment, Health & Nursing) (Most abstract)Nursing philosophies.Conceptual models and Grand theories.Nursing theories and Middle range theories (Least abstract)
NURSING PHILOSOPHIESTheoryKey emphasis
 
Florence Nightingale’sLegacy of caringFocuses on nursing and the patientenvironment relationship.Ernestine Wiedenbach:The helping art of clinicalnursingHelping process meets needs through the artof individualizing care.Nurses should identify patients ‘need-for –help’ by:ObservationUnderstanding client behaviourIdentifying cause of discomfortDetermining if clients can resolve problems orhave a need for helpVirginia Henderson’sDefinition of NursingPatients require help towards achievingindependence.Derived a definition of nursingIdentified 14 basic human needs on whichnursing care is based.FayeG.Abedellah’s Typology of twenty one NursingproblemsPatient’s problems determine nursing careLydia E. Hall :Care, Cure,Core modelNursing care is person directed towards self love.Jean Watson’s Philosophyand Science of caringCaring is moral ideal: mind -body – soulengagement with one and other.Caring is a universal, social phenomenon thatis only effective when practicedinterpersonally considering humanisticaspects and caring.Patricia Benner’s Primacyof caringCaring is central to the essence of nursing. Itsets up what matters, enabling connectionand concern. It creates possibility for mutualhelpfulness.Caring creates - possibilities of copingpossibilities for connecting with and concernfor others, possibilities for giving andreceiving helpDescribed systematically five stages of skillacquisition in nursing practice – novice,advanced beginner, competent, proficient and
 
expert.
CONCEPTUAL MODELS AND GRAND THEORIES
Dorothea E. Orem’s Self care deficit theory innursingSelf–care maintains wholeness.Three Theories:Theory of Self-CareTheory of Self-Care DeficitTheory of Nursing SystemsWholly compensatory (doing for the patient)Partly compensatory (helping the patient dofor himself or herself)Supportive- educative (Helping patient tolearn self care and emphasizing on theimportance of nurses’ roleMyra Estrin Levine’s: Theconservation modelHolism is maintained by conserving integrityProposed that the nurses use the principles of conservation of:Client EnergyPersonal integrityStructural integritySocial integrityA conceptual model with three nursingtheories –ConservationRedundancyTherapeutic intentionMartha E.Roger’s: Scienceof unitary human beingsPerson environment are energy fields thatevolve negentropicallyMartha proposed that nursing was a basicscientific disciplineNursing is using knowledge for humanbetterment.The unique focus of nursing is on the unitaryor irreducible human being and theenvironment (both are energy fields) rather

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