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C1

C1

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Published by conimel

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Published by: conimel on Jun 13, 2012
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08/09/2013

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REZUMAT CURS 1
1.
Primitive
Definitie 1.1.
Fie
:
R
R
,
interval. Spunem ca 
:
R
este o primitiva a lui 
daca 
(
x
) =
(
x
)
, pentru orice
x
.
Daca
F,G
sunt primitive pentru
atunci exista
R
astfel incat
(
x
) =
G
(
x
) +
, pentru orice
x
.
Definitie 1.2.
Fie
:
R
R
si 
:
R
o primitiva a sa.Multimea tuturor primitivelor functiei 
pe
se noteaza cu 
 
fdx
sau 
 
(
x
)
dx
si se numeste integrala nedefinita a functiei 
.
Astfel
 
(
x
)
dx
=
(
x
) +
C
,
pentru orice
x
, unde cu
C
am notat multimea tuturor functiilorconstante pe
.Reamintim in continuare primitivele functiilor elementare uzuale.
Functia putere
 
x
α
dx
=
x
α
+1
α
+ 1+
C
, α
=
1
 
dxx
= ln
|
x
|
+
C
, x
= 0
.
Functia exponentiala
 
a
x
dx
=
a
x
ln
a
+
C
, a
= 1
, a >
0
 
e
x
dx
=
e
x
+
C
.
1
 
2 REZUMAT CURS 1
Functii trigonometrice
 
sin
xdx
=
cos
x
+
C
 
cos
xdx
= sin
x
+
C
 
tan
xdx
=
ln
|
cos
x
|
+
C
, x
R
{
(2
k
+ 1)
π
2
,k
Z
}
 
cot
xdx
= ln
|
sin
x
|
+
C
, x
R
{
kπ,k
Z
}
 
dx
cos
2
x
= tan
x
+
C
, x
R
{
(2
k
+ 1)
π
2
,k
Z
}
 
dx
sin
2
x
=
cot
x
+
C
, x
R
{
kπ,k
Z
}
 
dxx
2
+ 1= arctan
x
+
C
 
dxx
2
+
a
2
=1
a
arctan
xa
+
C
 
dxx
2
a
2
=12
a
ln
x
ax
+
a
+
C
 
dx
1
x
2
= arcsin
x
+
C
, x
(
1
,
1)
 
dx
a
2
x
2
= arcsin
xa
+
C
, x
(
a,a
)
 
dx
x
2
+
a
2
= ln(
x
+
x
2
+
a
2
) +
C
.
2.
Metode de calcul
1. Integrarea prin parti
Daca
f,g
sunt de clasa
1
(
) atunci
 
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
dx
=
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
 
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
dx.
Exemplu 2.1.
 
ln
xdx, x >
0
.
 
sin
αxdx
=
1
α
cos
αx
+
C
 
cos
αxdx
=1
α
sin
αx
+
C
.
 
REZUMAT CURS 1 3
2. Schimbarea de variabila
Daca
:
R
este o primitiva afunctiei
(
φ
1
)
:
R
,
continua iar
φ
:
este o functiebijectiva si de clasa
1
cu
φ
(
x
)
= 0, pentru orice
x
atunci
 
(
φ
(
x
))
dx
=
(
φ
(
x
)) +
C
,
pentru orice
x
I.
3.
 
dx
x
2
+
bx
+
c
=
 
dx
 
x
+
b
2
2
+
4
x
+
b
2
=
t
.
Exemplu 2.2.
 
dx
√ 
x
2
+
x
+1
.
4.
 
dx
x
2
+
bx
+
c
=
 
dx
 
4
x
b
2
2
.
Exemplu 2.3.
 
dx
√ 
3
2
x
x
2
.
5.
 
x
2
+
bx
+
cdx
=
  
x
+
b
2
2
+
4
dx
,
x
+
b
2
=
t
.
6. Primitivele functiilor rationale
 
(
x
)
Q
(
x
)
dx
,
,
Q
polinoame si
Q
(
x
)
= 0, pentru orice
x
.
Cazul I
Daca
gr
(
)
gr
(
Q
) efectuam impartirea si obtinem astfel
(
x
)
Q
(
x
)=
(
x
) +
1
(
x
)
Q
(
x
)
,
unde
este polinom si
gr
(
1
)
< gr
(
Q
). Folosim in continuare descom-punerea in factori ireductibili a polinomului
Q
,
Q
(
x
) = (
x
a
1
)
k
1
...
(
x
a
l
)
k
l
(
x
2
+
b
1
x
+
c
1
)
m
1
...
(
x
2
+
b
n
x
+
c
n
)
m
n
,b
2
 j
4
c
 j
<
0,
j
= 1
,n
si obtinem descompunerea in fractii simple
1
(
x
)
Q
(
x
)=
l
 j
=1
A
 j
1
x
a
 j
+
A
 j
2
(
x
a
 j
)
2
+
...A
 jk
j
(
x
a
 j
)
k
j
++
n
 j
=1
B
 j
1
x
+
 j
1
x
2
+
b
 j
x
+
c
 j
+
B
 j
2
x
+
 j
2
(
x
2
+
b
 j
x
+
c
 j
)
2
+
...B
 jm
j
x
+
 jm
j
(
x
2
+
b
 j
x
+
c
 j
)
m
j
,
unde
A
 ji
,
a
 j
,
B
 ji
,
 ji
,
b
 j
si
c
 j
sunt numere reale.
Cazul II
Daca
gr
(
)
< gr
(
Q
) procedam ca mai inainte folosinddescompunerea in fractii simple.

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