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FERC Reactive Power

FERC Reactive Power

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Published by Jacob Carter

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Published by: Jacob Carter on Jun 14, 2012
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05/08/2013

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Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
 
Staff Report
  
February 4, 2005
Principles for Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power Supply and Consumption
Table of Contents
Preface.......................................................................................................................... 2Executive Summary...................................................................................................... 3Chapter 1 – Introduction:What Is Reactive Power and Why Are We Concerned About It?................................ 17Chapter 2 – Physical Characteristics and Costs of Reactive Power in AC Systems.... 25Chapter 3 – History of Reactive Power Pricing............................................................45Chapter 4 International Reactive Power Markets................................................. 59Chapter 5 – Existing Reactive Power Issues................................................................ 65Chapter 6 – Pricing and Procurement Options for Reactive Power............................. 85Chapter 7 – Conclusions, Recommendations and Questions......................................105Glossary..................................................................................................................... 117Appendix A – Literature Review of Reactive Power Markets....................................123Appendix B – Generators........................................................................................... 131Appendix C – Transmission........................................................................................144Appendix D – System Operator..................................................................................160Appendix E – Electric Plants in Service.......................................................................174
FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSIONStaff Report • Docket No. AD05-1-000 • February 4, 2005888 First Street, N.E. Washington, D.C. 20426
 
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Principles for Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power Supply and Consumption
Principles for Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power Supply and Consumption
Preface
In August 2003, there was a widespread power outage that affected 50 million people in theUnited States and Canada. As a result of the April 2004 report and recommendations of theU.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force and an increased number of filings forreactive power compensation at the Commission, Chairman Pat Wood III formed aninteroffice staff team to develop principles for efficient and reliable reactive power supplyand consumption.The team consisted of Richard O’Neill (team lead), Mary Cain, David Mead, Derek Bandera,David Withnell, Zolaikha Salihi, Dharmendra Sharma, Emily Bartholomew, Giuseppe Fina,Harry Singh, Kumar Agarwal, Tomohisa Koyama and Victor Coulter. John Jennrich servedas editor. Judy Eastwood served as graphic artist.Brendan Kirby, John Kueck, Chris Mak, Frank Macedo, Ross Baldick, Bill Stewart. MarijaIlic, Jamie Weber, Oscar Muñoz, Bruce Poole, Gary Nakarado, Saeed Farrokhpay, ThanhLuong, LaChelle Brooks, Thomas Dautel, Kevin Kelly, James Ballard, Vis Tekumalla and Joe McClelland, among others, provided helpful comments and contributions.Over several months, team members consulted representatives of the American Public PowerAssociation, Edison Electric Institute, Electric Power Supply Association, Institute of Electricaland Electronics Engineers, National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, NorthAmerican Electric Reliability Council, regional transmission organizations and variousequipment manufacturers.This report contains analyses, presentations and conclusions that may be based on or derivedfrom the data sources cited, but do not necessarily reflect the positions or recommendationsof the data providers.The team appreciates the many contributions it has received. Any errors are those of theinteroffice staff.

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