A model of the hierarchy of behaviour, cognition,and consciousness
The Open University, Biological Sciences, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
Received 9 December 2004Available online 29 June 2005
Processes comparable in important respects to those underlying human conscious and non-consciousprocessing can be identiﬁed in a range of species and it is argued that these reﬂect evolutionary precursorsof the human processes. A distinction is drawn between two types of processing: (1) stimulus-based and (2)higher-order. For
in humans the operations of processing are themselves associated withconscious awareness. Conscious awareness sets the context for stimulus-based processing and its end-pointis accessible to conscious awareness. However, the mechanics of the translation between stimulus andresponse proceeds without conscious control. The paper argues that higher-order processing is an evolu-tionary addition to stimulus-based processing. The model
s value is shown for gaining insight into a rangeof phenomena and their link with consciousness. These include brain damage, learning, memory, develop-ment, vision, emotion, motor control, reasoning, the voluntary versus involuntary debate, and mentaldisorder.
2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Consciousness; Automaticity; Behavioural hierarchy; Cognition; Determinism; Development; Goal; Habit;Modal action pattern; Motivation; Reﬂex; Will; Hippocampus; Prefrontal cortex
Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2006) 75–118
1053-8100/$ - see front matter
2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.concog.2005.04.008
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