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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics - Ch02

# Introduction to Fluid Mechanics - Ch02

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10/06/2011

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Characteristics
of
a
fluid
Fluids are divided into liquids and gases. A liquid is hard to compress andas in the ancient saying ‘Water takes the shape of the vessel containing it’, itchanges its shape according to the shape of its container with an upper freesurface. Gas on the other hand is easy to compress, and fully expands to
fill
its container. There is thus no free surface.Consequently, an important characteristic of a fluid from the viewpointof fluid mechanics is its compressibility. Another characteristic is its viscosity.Whereas a solid shows its elasticity in tension, compression or shearing stress,a fluid does
so
only for compression. In other words, a fluid increases itspressure against compression, trying to retain its original volume. Thischaracteristic is called compressibility. Furthermore, a fluid shows resistancewhenever two layers slide over each other. This characteristic is calledviscosity.In general, liquids are called incompressible fluids and gases compressiblefluids. Nevertheless, for liquids, compressibility must be taken into accountwhenever they are highly pressurised, and for gases compressibility may bedisregarded whenever the change in pressure is small. Although a fluid is anaggregate of molecules in constant motion, the mean free path of thesemolecules is 0.06pm or
so
even for air of normal temperature and pressure,so
a
fluid is treated as a continuous isotropic substance.Meanwhile, a non-existent, assumed fluid without either viscosity or com-pressibility is called an ideal fluid or perfect fluid. A fluid with compressibilitybut without viscosity is occasionally discriminated and called a perfect fluid,too. Furthermore, a gas subject to Boyle’s-Charles’ law is called a perfect orideal gas.
A11
physical quantities are given by a few fundamental quantities or theircombinations. The units of such fundamental quantities are called base

Units and dimensions
7
units, combinations of them being called derived units. The system in whichlength, mass and time are adopted as the basic quantities, and from whichthe units of other quantities are derived, is called the absolute system ofunits.
2.2.1
Absolute system
of
units
MKS
system
of
units
This is the system of units where the metre
(m)
is used for the unit of length,kilogram (kg) for the unit
of
mass, and second
(s)
for the unit of time as thebase units.
CGS
system
of
units
This is the system of units where the centimetre (cm) is used for length,gram (g) for mass, and second
(s)
for time as the base units.
International system
of
units
(SI?
SI,
the abbreviation
of
La Systkme International d’Unites, is the systemdeveloped from the
MKS
system of units. It is a consistent and reasonablesystem of units which makes it a rule to adopt only one unit for each ofthe various quantities used in such fields
as
science, education andindustry.There are seven fundamental
SI
units, namely: metre (m) for length,kilogram (kg) for mass, second
(s)
for time, ampere
(A)
for electriccurrent, kelvin
(K)
for thermodynamic temperature, mole (mol) for massquantity and candela (cd) for intensity of light. Derived units consist ofthese units.
Table
2.1
Dimensions
and
units
Quantity Absolute system
of
units
a
B
Y
units
LengthMassTimeVelocityAccelerationDensityForcePressure, stressEnergy, workViscosityKinematic viscosity
1
0
0
1
1
-3
1
-1
2
-1
2
0
1
00
0
1
111
1
0
0
0
1
-1
-2
0
-2-2
-2
-1
-1
mkg
S
mlsm/s2kg
I
m3
N
=
kg m/s2Pa
=
N/m2
J
Pa
s
m2/s

8
Characteristics of a fluid
2.2.2
Dimension
All physical quantities are expressed in combinations of base units. The indexnumber of the combination of base units expressing a certain physicalquantity is called the dimension, as follows.In the absolute system of units the length, mass and time arerespectively expressed by
L, M
and T. Put
Q
as
a
certain physicalquantity and
c
as
a
proportional constant, and assume that they areexpressed as follows:where
a,
3
and
y
are respectively called the dimensions of
Q
for
L, M,
T.Table 2.1 shows the dimensions of various quantities.The mass per unit volume of material is called the density, which isgenerally expressed by the symbol
p.
The density of
a
gas changes accordingto the pressure, but that of a liquid may be considered unchangeable ingeneral. The units of density are kg/m3 (SI). The density of water at
4°C
and 1 atm (101 325 Pa, standard atmospheric pressure; see Section 3.1.1) is1000 kg/m3.The ratio of the density of a material
p
to the density of water
p,
is calledthe specific gravity, which is expressed by the symbol
s:
The reciprocal of density, i.e. the volume per unit mass, is called the specificvolume, which is generally expressed by the symbol
u:
Values for the density
p
of water and air under standard atmosphericpressure are given in Table 2.2.
Table
2.2
Density
of
water and air (standard atmospheric pressure)
Temperature
("C)
0
10
15
20
40
60
80
100
p
(kg/m')
Water
999.8 999.7 999.1 998.2 992.2 983.2 971.8 958.4Air 1.293 1.247 1.226 1.205 1.128 1.060 1.000 0.9464