direction, by deducting the outlet mass flow rate from the inlet mass flow rate,the fluid mass stored in the fluid element per unit time can be obtained, i.e.Similarly, the fluid mass stored in it per unit time in the
direction isThe mass of fluid element (pbdxdy) ought to increase by a(pbdxdy/at) inunit time by virtue of this stored fluid. Therefore, the following equation isobtained:or
is called the continuity equation. This equation is applicableto the unsteady flow of a compressible fluid.
the case of steady flow, thefirst term becomes zero.For an incompressible fluid,
the following equation isobtained:
This equation is applicable to both steady and unsteady
becomes, using cylindrical coordinates,
the case of an axially symmetric flow as shown in Fig.
the continuity equation is independent of whether the fluid is viscous ornot, the same equation is applicable also to an ideal fluid.Consider an elementary rectangle of fluid of side dx, side dy and thickness
as shown in Fig.
and apply Newton's second law
motion. Where the
aw/az is generally called the divergence of vector
w) and is expressed as div
If we use this, eqns (6.1) and (6.2) (two-dimensional
are expressed respectively as the following equations:aPaP-+div(pY)=O or