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Introduction to Fluid Mechanics - Ch14

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics - Ch14

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Published by: Nguyễn Hồng Quân on Jan 05, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/28/2012

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Unsteady
Flow
From olden times fluid had mostly been utilised mechanically for generatingmotive power, but recently it has been utilised for transmitting orautomatically controlling power too. High-pressure fluid has to be used inthese systems for high speed and good response. Consequently the issue ofunsteady flow has become very important.When the viscous frictional resistance is zero, by Newton’s laws (Fig.
14.1),
dopg(z2
-
Z,)A
=
-PA-
dt
(14.1)
dvdt
Z2
-
,)
+
1-
=
0
Moving the datum for height to the balanced state position, thens(z2
-
J
=
292Also,dv d2zdt
-
dt2
_--
and from above,d2z 29
Z=-IZ
Therefor e
z
=
c,
os
Et
+
c2
in
fit
(14.2)(14.3)
(14.4)
Assuming the initial conditions are t
=
0
and z
=
z,,, then dzldt
=
0,
C,
=
z,,,
C2
=
0.
Therefore
 
Vibration
of
liquid column in a U-tube
239
Fig.
14.1
Vibration
of
liquid column in a U-tube
z=zocos@ (14.5)This means that the liquid surface makes a singular vibration
of
cycle
T
=
27~m.
14.1.2
Laminar frictional resistance
In this case, with the viscous frictional resistance in eqn (14. l),dv 32vvldt
D
(z2
-
,)
+
-+7
=
0
(14.6)Substituting 22
=
(z2
-
z,) as above,d2z 32vdz 2g-+--+-z=odt2
D2
dt
1
16v 1
fi
D2
0,
(14.7)d2 dz
-+
2[0,-+
0i.z
=
0
where
on
-
nd
[
=
--
dt2 dtThe general solution of
eqn
(14.7) is
as
follows:
(a)
when
[
<
1
z
=
e-i""'
[
,
sin
(
,
r)
-
2t
+
C,COS
(
0,
-)]
-
c2t(14.8)Assume z
=
zo and dzldt
=
0
when t
=
0.
Then
 
z
=
z0e+n' [Asin
w,
JZt)
+
cos
(
,
Jzt)]
x
-e-c"a'sin
(T
,
1
-
2t
+
4
1
ZO
-
G-?
4
=
tan-'
___
(Y)
Fig.
14.2
Motion
of
liquid column with frictional resistance
In
the system shown in Fig. 14.3, a tank (capacity
V)
s connected to a pipeline (diameter
D,
ection area
A
and length
I).
If the inlet pressure is suddenly(14.9)z
=
z
O
e-cwnf[Lsinh(wn
-
JKt)
cosh(q,JGt)]
-
sinh
(J-)
n
2
-
It++
0
e-iw
m
4
=
tanh-'
___
(T)
,
'
'
(14.10)

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