into the environment. Many human activities—industrial production, burn-ing o ossil uels, agriculture, and product use, among others—generate pol-lutants that can nd their way into the ocean. At one time, people thoughtthat the vastness o the ocean could dilute pollutants enough to eliminate theirimpacts. It is now known, however, that some pollutants can signicantly altermarine ecosystems and cause harm—sometimes deadly—to species rom the top tothe bottom o the ood web.Pollutants oten originate ar inland and are transported to the ocean via rivers or throughthe air. Pollutants o particular concern include petroleum, excess nutrients rom ertil-izers, debris, and industrial contaminants. Even noise, rom such activities as shipping,seismic exploration, and sonar, can aect ocean lie.The good news is that through innovative science and technology, regular monitoring, envi-ronmentally-aware policies, and established treatment methods, some o the eects o pol-lution can be contained and reduced. Many important action steps have already been taken:“scrubbers” have been installed on coal power plants to reduce air emissions o pollutants;microorganisms are being used to break down pollutants in sewage; wetlands and buer zoneshave been created along rivers and streams to absorb excess ertilizers; and oil dispersants arebeing used to treat oil spills.Despite some successes in reversing hazardous eects o pollution, much work remains to bedone to protect ocean health or uture generations.