Theory and Design of Automotive Engines
By B Dinesh Prabhu, Assistant Professor, P E S College of Engineering, Mandya, KARNATAKA
.To obtain a gas-tight permanent joint with a cylinder-head gasket it is necessary to make provision for an adequate number of studs distributed as nearly uniformly as possible. With L-headcylinders from 16 to 20 studs are used for a four-cylinder block, from 24 to 26 for a six-cylinder,and from 30 to 32for an eight-cylinder. With , valve-in-head cylinders only two rows of studs arerequired, instead of three, and the total number therefore is less, viz., 12 for a four-cylinder block,16 for a six- cylinder, and 20 for an eight-cylinder. To prevent distortion of the casting by drawingup the nuts, there must be plenty of metal in the bosses for the studs, and the studs must not be toonear the valve seats. In the design of the heads careful attention must be given to the avoidance of pockets which might form steam traps. It is not necessary to use very large water ports. Moderate-sized ports judiciously distributed, are better, as they make it easier to prevent leaks.
In the past automobile-engine cylinders have been generally cast of close-grained gray ironapproximating the following composition.PercentSilicon 1.9 to 2.2Sulphur not over 0.12Phosphorus not over 0.15Manganese 0.6 to 0.9Combined carbon 0.35 to 0.55Total carbon 3.2 to 3.4The SAE has standardized five grades of cast iron, of which four are recommended for cylinder blocks and cylinder heads as follows: No. 111 for small cylinder blocks; No. 120 for cylinder blocks generally. No.121 for truck and tractor-, and No. 122 for diesel engine cylinder blocks. Pistons also are cast of these irons.It was determined from tests conducted, that to obtain the better physical properties the totalcarbon & silicon contents must be reduced and the phosphorus content held to a lower limit.Among other points usually covered in specifications for cylinder castings arc the following:Castings must be smooth, well cleaned and free from shrinkage cavities, cracks and holes, largeinclusions, chills, excess free carbides and any other defects detrimental to machinability,appearance, or performance. They must finish to the size specified. When tensile tests are providedfor, the portion of the casting from which the test piece is to be machined is usually specified. .The use of steel for cylinders has often been suggested, and for racing and aircraft engines,cylinders are sometimes made from hollow steel forgings. Several American manufacturers usecylinder castings of semi-steel, more properly called high-test cast iron. This material is made byadding a certain percentage of scrap steel to the melt of cast iron, which results in a finer grain andin somewhat better tensile properties.To make it possible to successfully cast a multiple-cylinder block with thin walls, the ironmust pour well and have a "long life" (as the foundry men call it). These characteristics arestrengthened, by high phosphorus content, but, unfortunately, this element tends to make the ironsoft and less resistant to wear.
.Certain iron ore mined in Cuba contains small percentages of nickel and chromium, and themetal made from this are, known as Mayari iron, is sometimes added to gray iron for cylinder castings: Mayan iron therefore is a natural alloy. It is claimed that it is free from oxidation & has alower solidification point, and that the "longer life" of the iron improves the "feeding" of castingswhen they are properly gated, in spite of low phosphorus content. Castings when sectioned -show