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Chapter 3 - Cylinder Heads Cylinders and Liners

Chapter 3 - Cylinder Heads Cylinders and Liners

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Published by: vcelani on Jun 14, 2012
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Theory and Design of Automotive Engines
By B Dinesh Prabhu, Assistant Professor, P E S College of Engineering, Mandya, KARNATAKA
Cylinder heads, Cylinders & liners
Most modern automotive engines have all of their cylinders and the greater part of their crankcase poured in a single casting, so that cylinders and crankcase form a single unit. However,cylinders and crankcase perform different functions.
Separate Vs. Integral Cylinder Heads
.Cylinder heads now almost always are made separate castings, which are secured to thecylinder block with studs and nuts, with a gasket in between to ensure a gas-tight joint. The cylinder head can be cast integral with the block, and at one period in engine development that was the predominant practice.With integral cylinder heads there is, of course, no machining of joint surfaces and no needfor a gasket, but the cylinder casting is much more difficult to produce, and. besides, with the designwhich was usually employed, cooling of the combustion-chamber walls was less effective-the walltemperature of each combustion chamber being less uniform-than in an engine with a detachablehead.In the case of L-head engines with integral cylinder heads, the valves were introducedthrough openings in the head which were closed by threaded plugs generally referred to as "valvecaps." These plugs presented to the hot gases in the cylinder a considerable surface which was notwater-cooled, and which therefore formed "hot spots." It was customary to screw the spark plug intoone of these "valve caps." Since the insulator of the plugnaturally is a poor conductor of heat, and the additionalthreaded joint also formed an obstruction to heat flow,this further aggravated the situation with respect to "hotspots" and made it necessary to keep the compressionquite low.With the valve-in-head type of cylinder there aretwo alternate designs of integral heads. With one of these, exemplified in Fig, 1, the valves seat directly onthe metal of the head, but this has the disadvantage thatwhen they are to be reground, the whole block has to beremoved from the car. With the other, use is made of so-called valve cages, that is, cylindrical sleeves which areset into bores in the cylinder head and retained therein between a shoulder and a ring nut. The valve seat isfom1ed on the inner end of the cage, and there is a portin the wall of the latter through which the gases flowfrom or into a valve passage cast in the cylinder head.The objection to valve cages is that they add another "joint" to the path for heat flow from the valve head tothe jacket water, and therefore result in higher valvetemperatures (particularly of the exhaust valve), which promotes detonation and makes the constructionunsuitable for high speed, high-compression engines.
Fig.1. Cylinder with integral head
Theory and Design of Automotive Engines
By B Dinesh Prabhu, Assistant Professor, P E S College of Engineering, Mandya, KARNATAKA
2When the cylinder head is a detachable casting, the cylinder and jacket cores can be moresecurely supported in the mold, and the cylinder castings are likely to be more nearly true to pattern,with the result that after the cylinder is finished, its walls will be more nearly uniform in thickness.With an engine having a removable head it is possible to thoroughly clean the combustionchamber of carbon, by scraping, after the head has been removed. If it is desired to locate the valvesin the head, they may be seated directly on a water-cooled surface.One reason for the continued, limited use of integral heads is that they avoid trouble due todistortion of the upper or outer end of the cylinder bore due to the drawing up of the cylinder-headretaining nuts. Such trouble is experienced occasionally, with detachable cylinder heads (blow-by past piston rings, leakage past valves, and excessive oil consumption), but it can be guarded against by performing the final finishing operation on the bore with a dummy cylinder head in place~ This produces a bore which is true when the retaining nuts are tightened.
GasketsCopper-Asbestos Gaskets
.Separate cylinder heads were rendered practical by the introduction of the copper-asbestos gasket. This consists of an asbestossheet cut or stamped to the required form,which is armored with thin sheet copper.There is a copper sheet on each side of theasbestos sheet, and the two copper sheets lapalong the outer edges of the asbestos sheet, sothat the latter is completely encased. Copper grommets are inserted in the waterway openings and sometimes also in the combustion-chamber openings. In heavy duty engines the combustion-chamber grommet of the gasket may be reinforced by a copper-wire loop or a copper washer. In these copper-asbestos gaskets the copper provides thetenacity and the asbestos the compressibility needed in a packing. A gasket for a four-cylinder L-head engine is shown in Fig.2.
Steel-Encased and Other Gaskets
.Cylinder-head gaskets are made also of asbestos sheet encased in steel instead of copper.Cold-rolled, deep-drawing steel is used, and is rust-proofed to prevent trouble from corrosion.Among the rust-proofing processes applied to sheet steel for gaskets are tinning, electro-galvanizing, and terne-plating. Steel, being harder, does not have as good sealing properties ascopper, and a sealing coat of some heat-resistant, non-hardening material is generally applied to thegasket, either in the manufacturing process or during installation. The edges of the steel sheet, of course, are not rust-proofed, and some steel-encased gaskets are fitted with copper grommets at thewaterways. The principal advantage of steel- over copper-encased gaskets is that the productioncost of the former is about 20 per cent less.Another type of gasket comprises a central steel core with a layer of .coated and graphitedasbestos on each side thereof, the asbestos being bonded to the core by means of integral steel tangsclinched into it. These gaskets, which are used chiefly in the engines of low-priced passenger cars,generally are provided with steel grommets at the combustion-chamber and waterway openings, onemanufacturer is using a cylinder head gasket consisting of a sheet of SAE No. 1010 steel 0.015 in.thick, which is corrugated around the openings therein, including those for the cylinder-head studs.The corrugations have a spring action. and the sealing properties of the gasket are further improved by applying a coating of a heat-resistant lacquer to both sides.
Theory and Design of Automotive Engines
By B Dinesh Prabhu, Assistant Professor, P E S College of Engineering, Mandya, KARNATAKA
Cylinder-Head Studs
.To obtain a gas-tight permanent joint with a cylinder-head gasket it is necessary to make provision for an adequate number of studs distributed as nearly uniformly as possible. With L-headcylinders from 16 to 20 studs are used for a four-cylinder block, from 24 to 26 for a six-cylinder,and from 30 to 32for an eight-cylinder. With , valve-in-head cylinders only two rows of studs arerequired, instead of three, and the total number therefore is less, viz., 12 for a four-cylinder block,16 for a six- cylinder, and 20 for an eight-cylinder. To prevent distortion of the casting by drawingup the nuts, there must be plenty of metal in the bosses for the studs, and the studs must not be toonear the valve seats. In the design of the heads careful attention must be given to the avoidance of  pockets which might form steam traps. It is not necessary to use very large water ports. Moderate-sized ports judiciously distributed, are better, as they make it easier to prevent leaks.
Cylinder Material
In the past automobile-engine cylinders have been generally cast of close-grained gray ironapproximating the following composition.PercentSilicon 1.9 to 2.2Sulphur not over 0.12Phosphorus not over 0.15Manganese 0.6 to 0.9Combined carbon 0.35 to 0.55Total carbon 3.2 to 3.4The SAE has standardized five grades of cast iron, of which four are recommended for cylinder blocks and cylinder heads as follows: No. 111 for small cylinder blocks; No. 120 for cylinder blocks generally. No.121 for truck and tractor-, and No. 122 for diesel engine cylinder  blocks. Pistons also are cast of these irons.It was determined from tests conducted, that to obtain the better physical properties the totalcarbon & silicon contents must be reduced and the phosphorus content held to a lower limit.Among other points usually covered in specifications for cylinder castings arc the following:Castings must be smooth, well cleaned and free from shrinkage cavities, cracks and holes, largeinclusions, chills, excess free carbides and any other defects detrimental to machinability,appearance, or performance. They must finish to the size specified. When tensile tests are providedfor, the portion of the casting from which the test piece is to be machined is usually specified. .The use of steel for cylinders has often been suggested, and for racing and aircraft engines,cylinders are sometimes made from hollow steel forgings. Several American manufacturers usecylinder castings of semi-steel, more properly called high-test cast iron. This material is made byadding a certain percentage of scrap steel to the melt of cast iron, which results in a finer grain andin somewhat better tensile properties.To make it possible to successfully cast a multiple-cylinder block with thin walls, the ironmust pour well and have a "long life" (as the foundry men call it). These characteristics arestrengthened, by high phosphorus content, but, unfortunately, this element tends to make the ironsoft and less resistant to wear.
Nickel-Chromium irons
.Certain iron ore mined in Cuba contains small percentages of nickel and chromium, and themetal made from this are, known as Mayari iron, is sometimes added to gray iron for cylinder castings: Mayan iron therefore is a natural alloy. It is claimed that it is free from oxidation & has alower solidification point, and that the "longer life" of the iron improves the "feeding" of castingswhen they are properly gated, in spite of low phosphorus content. Castings when sectioned -show

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