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Behaviour of Concrete Box Girder Bridges of Deformable Cross-Section

Behaviour of Concrete Box Girder Bridges of Deformable Cross-Section

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Published by TaiCheong Lee
Behaviour of Concrete Box Girder Bridges of Deformable Cross-section
Behaviour of Concrete Box Girder Bridges of Deformable Cross-section

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Published by: TaiCheong Lee on Jun 15, 2012
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Behaviour
of
concrete box girderbridges
of
deformable cross-section
B.
Kermani,
BSc,
PhD, MIStructE,
and
P,
aldron,
BSc,
PhD, DIC, MICE, MIStructE
H
Distortion
of
the
cross-section,
which
W,
torsionalwarpingdisplacement
commonly
occurs
in
thin-walled
box
ya
distortional angle
girder
bridges
that contain
few
inter-
6
wall thicknessmediate
diaphragms,
may
modify
the
9
sectional constant
distribution
of
stress
throughout
the
B
bendingotationstructure
to
a
significant degree.
A
p
torsionalwarping shear parametermethod of analysis
s
presented
which
ed
distortional warping direct stress
e,
torsional warping direct stress
distortion in
addition
to
those
of
torsional
torsional
warping
shear
allows or
the
effectsof
cross-sectional
T~
distortional warping shear stresswarping.
The
approach
is
a
rational
exten-
4
torsional otation
be
applied
to
continuous
or
simply-
sion
of hin-walled
beam
theory
and
may
&
torsionalwarping ectorialcoordinatesupported
box
girders of
either
straight
or
f~
twice the enclosedcell areacurved configuration
n
plan.
As
ew
test
data of
continuous
girders
were
available
~~~~~d
against
which
the
accuracy
Of
the
method
Box girders have evolved into
a
highly efficient
could
be
verified,
two
models-one
andestheticallyleasingolutionor medium
fabricated
for
this
pu~ose-
he
increasesntoheangewhereead load domi.
straight*
the
Other
curved in
spanndongpanridges.
As
spanengthvariety
Of
'Oncentrated
and
distributed
important. It is here that the efficient use
of
the
torsional
loads
are
briefly described.
from
these tests
show
uralndorsionaltiffness,ermits a reduction box section, which possesses considerable
flex-
generalagreement
with
those
from
the
proposed analytical
method.
in overall section size with consequentialsaving in weight.particular attention
is
the curved box girder
Notation
bridge which
is
anssentialeature of mostcross-sectional areasection breadthmodern highway interchanges and urbantorsional bimomentmotorways.
A
characteristic feature
of
curveddistortional bimoment girders
is
theelativelyigh level
of
torsion
to
modulusf elasticity which theyreubjectedwingoheontin- torsional warping unctionshear flow
uous
interaction between flexural and torsionalmoments along the entire man. ox girders
&
distortionalwarpingsectorialcoordinate
tion and
testing
of
these models
under
a
nates,
saving in
self-weight becomes
2.
One type of configuration which merits
~~~~.~
~~
shear modulus of elasticitysection heightflexural second moment of areatorsional warping onstantdistortional warping constantSt Venant torsional constantdistortional frame stiffnesselastic foundation stiffnesstransverse distortional moment per unit lengthuniformly distributed distortional moment perunit lengthdistortional momentbending momentradius of curvaturetorsional sectorial shear functiondistortional sectorial shear functionuniformly distributed torsional moment per
unit
lengthtorsional momentwarping torsionvertical displacementshear forcedistortional warping displacement
Engrs
Sfructs
&
Proc.
Instn
Ciu.
Bldgs,
1993,99,
May,
109-122
Structural BoardPaper
9940
closes
15July
I993
Written discussionB. Kermani,
-
with heirhigh orsional tiffnessare ideally
Bridge
Engineer*
suited for these applications here signficant
Acer Consultants
levels of torsion mav be nduced even bv theself-weight of the structure lone.
3.
For the purposes of analysis, box girdersmay be divided into two groups according togroup contains girders assumed to haverigidtheir behaviour under torsional oads. The firstcross-section which do not change
ross-
sectional shapewhen rotated about their longi-concrete box girders with relatively thick walls,tudinal
axis
(Fig. l(a)). This
is
the case forin which transverse frame action may be suffi-cient to maintain the original cross-section. Inother cases, closely spaced diaphragms
or
cross-bracing may be required to satisfy thiscondition. The second group comprisesdeformable girders which possess sufficientof the cross-section under torsional loadingtransverse flexibility to undergo distortion(Fig.
l(b)).
P.
Waldron,
Professor
of
StructuralEngineering,Department ofCiuiland
Structural
Engineering.SheffieldUniuersify
of
 
KERMANI ANDWALDRON
t
Fig.
1.
Cross-sectionaldeformation of typicalboxgirder subjectedto torsion: (a)-rigidcross-section;
(b)
deformablecross-sectionFig.
2.
Torsionalwarpingdisplacementsoccurring in a typicalbox section:
(a)
unrestrained atboth ends; (b) fullyrestrained at one endonlyStructural response of thin-walled
box
girders
4.
The behaviour ofthin-walled beamsunder flexural loading is essentially the sameas for solid and thick-walled sections. It isusually satisfactory, by assuming that planesections remain plane after loading, to usesimple beam theory to predict the evel of flex-ural stress around the cross-section and the dis-tribution of bending moment at anysectionalong the girder. Shear lag effectsmay becomeimportant in certain thin-walled girders but arenot considered further here.
5.
The response of thin-walled box beams totorsional loading, however, may differ consider-ably from that observed for solid
or
thick-walled sections, owing to the formationf moresignificant out-of-plane warping deformations.These axial deformations invalidate the usualassumption of plane sections adopted n simpletheory and require special consideration.ngeneral, two components of warping displace-ment arise from torsional loading: the first,referred to as torsional warping, occursnresponse to the application f pure St Venant'storsion to the undeformed section; the secondarises from distortion of the cross-section itself.deformable cross-section under the applicationof an equal but opposite torque at both ends(Fig. 2(a)). Under this loading, the distributionof pure torsional warping displacement aroundthe cross-section
is
identical at all positionsalong the beam. Rigid-body rotations of the
6.
Consider first a box beam of non-
l
Wt
l
I/
t
.
wall elements are accompanied by a degreefshear deformation to ensure continuityof axialdisplacement around the closed perimeter,resulting in a system of circulatory shearstresses in accordance with St Venant theory.The shear low generated is of constant magni-tude and, in box girders with side cantilevers,occurs only around the perimeter f the closedcell, as shown n Fig. 3(a).
7.
If the torsional warping displacementsare now restrained, as by some form of physicalrestraint as shown n Fig. 2(b), the individualwall elements are no longer free to rotatesrigid bodies but are subjected to bending abouttheir own major axes. This results in a systemof axial direct stresses referred to as longitudi-nal torsional warping stresseswhich have thedistribution around the section shownn Fig.3(b). These are self-equilibrating and have noresultant component of either direct force
or
bending moment.
8.
A complementary system of shear flowsis also created which extends over the entirecross-section and constitutes a system in equi-librium (Fig. 3(c)). In thin-walled beams ofcertain proportions, the stresses due torestraining torsional warping may becomesignificant and should be fully considered inthe analysis.
9.
In practice, the number of diaphragmsalong the span are kept to theinimum sincethey induce additional dead load and cause dis-ruption and delays in the casting cycle. If theintermediate diaphragms areew in number,the cross-section of thin-walled girders maydistort, resulting in the transverse bendingofthe walls shown n Fig. l(b). Apart rom thetransverse flexural deformations, longitudinalout-of-plane displacements are also induced,referred to as distortional warping
ud.
Theseaxial displacements occur in addition to the tor-sional warping displacements
W,
shown in Fig.
2.
The nature of the loading and beam geometryis such that the distribution f distortionalwarping varies continuously along the span,causing additional direct and shear stresses tobe developed. The distortional direct stresses,with the typical cross-sectional distributionshown in Fig. 4(a), are self-equilibrating and donot interact with the other direct stress result-ants, However, they may modify significantly
 
CONCRETE BOXGIRDERBRIDGES OFDEFORMABLE CROSS-SECTIONthe state of stress due to primary bending, puretorsion and torsional warping. The complemen-tary distortional shear flows shown n Fig. 4(b)are also self-equilibrating and provide oresistance to the applied torsionalmoment.tortion, transverse bending moments are alsoproduced by frame action around the box.These have the distribution shown n Fig. 4(c),and the resulting stresses can e of the sameorder as the longitudinal stresses associatedwith bending and torsional and distortionalwarping. In such cases, the longitudinal andtransverse direct stresses can ombine suchthat Poisson's ratio effectsmay be significantand should not be neglected in design.10.
As
a direct result of cross-sectional dis-
Thin-walled beam theory
11.
A generalized theory for the analysis ofthin-walled beams havebeen developed byVlasov' and extended to curved girders by Dab-r~wski.~his approach enables the distributionof stress at any oint in the girder tobe deter-mined from the familiar expression used nsimple beam theory, but extended to accountfor the effects of torsional warping and distor-tion of the cross-section. For thin-walled behav-iour to be assumed with the context f Vlasov'stheory, the section mustbe sufficiently thin forvariations in stress across the thickness f thewalls to be neglected. This condition, which ismet by the large majority of concrete box girderbridges found in practice4 and virtually allsteel and composite sections, permits the levelsof direct and shear stresses on the median lineof the cross-section tobe used throughout theanalysis.
Torsional warping
12. For thin-walled, thick-walled and solidmembers to be accommodated by the samegeneral beam theory, Vlasov' introduced newcross-sectional functions called torsional sec-torial properties. New types of stress resultantwere also created, denoted torsionalbimoment
B
and warping torsion
T,,
to supplement thosealready used in simple beam theory. Vlasov'soriginal work has since been reformulated andgeneralized by Dabrowski3 for curved girderssubjected to non-uniform torsion, and by oll-brunner and Basler5 andHeilig6 for multicellboxes with arbitrary cross-sections.
13.
In the case of non-uniform torsion inclosed box sections, which occurs either as aresult of variations in the level of torsion alongthe span or as a resultof some form of physicalrestraint, the longitudinal distribution ftorsional warping displacement
W,
may beexpressed in terms of a dimensionless warpingfunction
f
such that
W,
=
-f'&
(1)
The term
(5
is called the torsional warping sec-torial coordinate (units:
L')
and represents thelevel of out-of-plane warping due to a unit rateof twist. Subsequently, the longitudinal dis-tribution of the stress resultants and
T,
along the beam are obtained from
B
=
-EI,f"
(2)and
T,
=
B'
=
-EI+f"'
(3)
where
I,
is
a torsional warping constant (units
L6)
defined as
I,
=
(5'dA
I
14. The direct stress and Shear flowresulting from restraint to torsional warping atany point on the medial line f the section maythen be expressed asin which
S,
units: L4) is a further sectorialfunction used to describe the distributionofshear flow due to torsional warping. The exten-
Fig.
3.
Typicalcross-sectionaldistributions of:(a) ure St Venant'sshear flow Fsv;(b)axial stress
a,
dueto the restraint
of
warping;(c) orrespondingshear flow F,Fig.
4.
Typicalcross-sectionaldistributions
of:
(a)distortional axialwarping stress
a,;
(b) orrespondingdistortional shearflow Fd; (c) transversedistortional momentper unit length
mdb

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