Pennoyer v. Neff
physical presence rule  : Exclusive jurisdiction within state, none without. However,in order to protect its own citizens, a state may exercise jurisdiction over a diverse defendant if he is
by attachment sufficient) or he
. (Dicta: 14
Amendment Due Process Requirement:
opportunity to be heard
Article IV, §1 Full Faith and Credit Clause: to judgments in other states
Is there a state Long Arm Statue authorizing jurisdiction?
(to the extent of the 14
(Specific instances: Massachusetts) follow in the most liberal sense, limit down with 
Follow local state long-arm statute
Service is within 100 miles of court (Bulge)
Nationwide service when authorized by federal statute
Extends federal power to its outermost constitutional limits in federal claims (ie foreign corporatedefendants: Claim must arise under federal law(a) D must be beyond jurisdiction of any one state(b) National contact must be substantial enough not to violate D’s constitutional rights.)
 Is it within constitutional limits?
ANY of the following:
Carnival Cruise Lines , Inc. v. Shute
(No evidence of bad faith in forum selectionclause, so it holds) . Stevens’ Dissent: Adhesion contract not fair.
Contemplated future consequences
Terms of contract
Course of dealing
(Motor vehicle out of state drivers appoint their state’s registrar as their representative. Service upon registrar is sufficient notice) 
Regulation reasonably calculated to protect public interest
State has power to exclude, and condition, use of highway
Not hostile but attempts to guarantee equal footing
Presence in state
: Personal Service within jurisdiction. See
Burnham v. Superior Court of California
(Ex-Husband served in divorce case while visiting kids. C dan serve within state, even if D is in stateon unrelated business) .
SCALIA (Majority): Predictability of pedigree, lack of litigation against
Can attach debt once establish
BRENNAN: Look at general fairness factors, not just history.
International Shoev. Washington
(Diverse company with systemic and continuousGoldberg’s Civil Procedure page 1 of 30ish