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54250274 30196882 Baja Sae India Design Report

54250274 30196882 Baja Sae India Design Report

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Published by Gaurav Chovatiya

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Published by: Gaurav Chovatiya on Jun 15, 2012
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Paper Number- TTTITM2
Baja 09 design report
Raman Sarin
Captain, Member design team
Ajay Goyat
Steering and brakes department
Copyright © 2006 SAE International
The design report focuses on explaining engineeringand design process behind each system in the Bajavehicle that is developed till now. The report also throwssome light on the alternatives considered. The design ofthe vehicle is in accordance with the specifications laiddown by the rule book. This design report is acumulative effort towards explaining the design processto the readers.
The design process of the vehicle is iterative and isbased on various engineering and reverse engineeringprocesses depending upon the availability, cost andother such factors. So the design process focuses on:
Safety, Serviceability, Cost, Standardization, Strength and ruggedness, Driving feel and ergonomics,Aesthetics 
The design criterion followed here is design for theworst and optimize the design while avoiding overdesigning, which would help in reducing the cost.We proceeded by setting up the budget for the project.Throughout the design process we distributed thebudget in such a way that if we assign more money toone system, we reduce that amount from some othersystem.Our last year vehicle design was based on the criterionof prevention of failure, as that year no one knew thetrack and the obstructions prevalent over there. So theprocedure of over designing was followed as the safetyof the driver is of utmost importance.The design targets of our vehicle for Baja 09 are asfollows:1.Maximum speed – 45 km/hr2.Weight – 270 kg3.Ground clearance – 20 cm or 8 inch4.Track width – 160 cm or 64 inch approx5.Wheel base – 190 cm or 75 inch approx6.Braking distance – 1400 cm7.Turning radius – 240 cm or 96 inchFurther, as designing is based on prevention of failureso let me define the condition of failure of each systemof our vehicle.
For roll cage, failure is yielding as this would changethe distance between various parts and thus theirworking is affected. It should be rigid and themountings should be able to bear its load.
For brakes, failure is their inability to lock all the fourtires simultaneously.
For tires, it is failure to transmit the required torquemaintaining the traction with the track surface.
For suspensions, failure occurs if they are not ableto isolate the driver from the shocks or if they are sosoft that they compress to their solid length whileworking.
For transmission there is less scope of failure butfailure is if any part is not able to transmit therequired torque or also if torque provided in the firstgear is unable to drive the vehicle from a halt.
For steering, failure is defined in terms of effortapplied by the driver and ability of the variouscomponents to facilitate the function of steering.
Failure of various other mechanisms like pedals,levers, electrical components occurs if they are notable to fulfill their desired function.Hence, our designing process targets on the above lyingfacts to ensure the proper working of our vehicle.
A quick look at the engine:Power - 8 kW at 4400 rpmMax Torque – 19 Nm at 3000 rpmAbout gear box, we have 4 forward and 1 reverse gearbox with built in differential and universal joint.As engine and gear box were given to us. Thus we hada little choice while working on transmission.Configuration of our vehicle would be rear engine rearwheel drive. We decided to keep the maximum speed ofthe vehicle at 45 km/hr as the vehicle is not about largerspeed but greater torque and stability. For attaining thisspeed, the only thing we can vary was the outerdiameter of the driving tire. For 45 km/hr O.D. of the tirecame out to be 16 inch. This diameter is too small asground clearance decreases.Hence in order to counter this problem options availablewere:1.Manipulation of power transmission outside thegear box using gears, sprockets and chain.2.Engaging the reverse gear lever while driving inall the forward gears and using the first gear inforward as reverse gear.We decided to work on the latter option and so didreverse engineering process trying to find if the gearswould be able to transmit the increased torque. Alsofollowing this method,1.We were able to check the weight2.Reduce the cost of the vehicle as we avoidedthe use of additional gears, sprockets andchains.3.We used standard parts, thus increased thereliability of the transmission system.To find the speed of the vehicle corresponding todifferent gear ratios, the formulae used is
Velocity on road
= 2×N×60÷ (1000×G) Km/hr
Where,G=gear ratioN=revolutions per minuteR=outer radius of the tire in meters.Some of our calculations for reverse and forwardorientation are as follows:
Normal orientationFinalGearRatiosSpeed(km/hr)Speed (km/hr)D=22 D=24inch inch
First 31.45:10.65D14.515.8Second18.70:11.109D24.426.6Third11.40:11.82D4043.6Forth7.35:12.82D6267.7Reverse55.08:10.38D109
Reverse orientationFinalGearRatiosSpeed(km/hr)Speed (km/hr)D=22 D=24 D=28inch inch inch
First55.08:10.38D8.3910.5Second32.75:10.63D13.915.217.7Third19.96:11.04D22.824.929Forth12.87:11.61D35.4538.745Reverse31.450.65D14.515.818.5Hence for maximum speed of 45 km/hr, we selectedtires of 28 inch outer diameter.Further, for better economy, we assume engine rpm tobe ranging from 2750 to 3250 as maximum torqueproduced by the engine is at 3000 rpm. In between this
range the torque produced by the engine is almostconstant (from engine characteristics graph; fig e1).Thus, for better economy, the range of speed in eachgear, for the driving tires of O.D. 28 inches; operating inreverse orientation is:First- 6.7 to 9 km/hrSecond- 11 to 14 km/hrThird- 18 to 24 km/hrForth- 29 to 37 km/hrReverse- 12 to 15 km/hrApart from this, for mounting the engine we are going touse neoprene rubber mountings.
Selecting the tires is one of the most important things asthe whole vehicle is in contact with the road on these 4points or rather patches. Also for designing an all terrainvehicle tires form the most important part. They shouldbe such that they are able to provide enough traction onall kind of surfaces so as to transmit the torque availableat the wheels without causing slipping.
Front and rear same tiresOuter diameter of tire – 24 inchOuter diameter of rim – 12 inchTread width – 6 inchAspect ratio - 1Number of plies – 6Tread design – mud cuttingSide with – 210 mm
Outer diameter of tire – 24 inchOuter diameter of rim – 12 inchTread width – 8 inchAspect ratio - 1Number of plies – 6Side with – 198 mm
Outer diameter of tire – 28 inchOuter diameter of rim – 12 inchTread width – 10 inchAspect ratio - 1Number of plies – 6Side with – 231 mmShown in fig t1One of the most important parameter for the selection ofthe outer diameter of the tires in rear was the maximumspeed of the vehicle. The relation between outerdiameter of the tires and the vehicle speed is as givenbelow:
Velocity on road = Angular velocity × (Outer radiusof tire ÷ gear ratio)
For the reverse orientation of the transmission systemand maximum speed of the vehicle as 45 km/hr radiuscomes out to be 28 inches. Apart from outer radius ofthe tire, other factors for the selection of tires includetread width, tread design, side wall width, load handlingcapacity, number of plies and treads on side wall etcwhich define the traction ability, tire resistance to wearand puncture and performance of the tire on variousterrains.
1.Built with a 6 ply rating and a reinforced casingmakes these one of the most puncture resistanttires in the market today.2.Large shoulder knobs wrap down the sidewall toprovide excellent side to pull out of the ruts withoutcausing sidewall failure.3.The deep tread and open wing design providesexcellent clean-out with each lug and an improvedtraction
4.Special natural compound delivers added traction.5.Smaller tires in front results in a smaller magnitudeof moment on the wishbones due to corneringforces during steering.6.Use of the larger outer diameter tire at the rearhelps to provide good ground clearance and also 10inch treads provides good traction to the powerwheels.
The criterion for designing the brakes stated as per therule book is that all the four wheels should locksimultaneously as the brake pedal is pressed.
Front Disc brake of Maruti800 (91 mm)Rear Drum brake of APE (180×30mm)

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