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4.1 Fault Classification
Faults are classified in three major groups: designfaults, manufacturing faults, and operational faults(Weaver and Austin, 2001). Operational faults, basedon their frequency and probability of occurrence, aredivided into permanent, intermittent, and transient (Aliet al. 2007). They may also be caused by different envi-ronmental, operational, and technological processes (DeMicheli and Benini, 2006) . A major concern in a fault tole-rant NoC design is the tolerance and redundancy of thesystem against permanent and transient faults causedduring operation. Transient faults or malfunctions occurregularly and can be tolerated even at the instruction lev-el (Schagaev, 2008). An example is when some area of thechip experiences an internal failure with permanent ef-fect. However, both types of fault cannot be easily corre-lated to any specific operational, environmental or tech-nological condition.
4.1 Redundancy Classification
Redundancy in computer systems can be classified interms of time, information and structure (Schagaev andZalewski, 2001). Any of these redundancy types can beapplied to system hardware or system software toprotect the system against various types of faults and toincrease the reliability of the system. Information redun-dancy can be realized by introducing coding techniquesfor parity check into the data stream and packets. Im-plementation of redundant hardware for simultaneousexecution of same data on various channels and compar-ing the outcomes is a frequent type of structural redun-dancy.
4.1 Fault Tolerance in NoC using Redundancy
There are several potential forms of fault toleranceimplementations in NoC systems. Segmentation of thecommunication and computational infrastructure of NoCsystems, one of its core concepts, provides inherent solu-tions to the reliability problems among different com-ponents and areas of systems. For information re-dundancy, information may be prioritized based on theattention needed by the network infrastructure for thesafety and integrity of data into three classes: latencycritical, data streams and miscellaneous information(Bjerregaard and Mahadevan, 2006). Each group has itsown type of coding technique for parity check.
Most common faults in the structure of the system arenoise concerns, technology delays and fabricationfaults in the manufacture of NoC integrated circuits(IC) (De Micheli and Benini, 2006) . The self-calibratingmethod was a solution to tolerating the gate delay (Wormet al. 2005). For noise concerns, packet encoding and re-dundant transmission of information has been intro-duced. Inserting extra links and wires would tolerate themanufacturing faults but would compromise the perfor-mance and energy consumption considerations insidea NoC IC.
A network simulator is used to evaluate the conceptfor a typical communications scenario that must supportseveral classes of traffic having a range of QoS require-ments.We would use the tool, Network Simulator ns-2, which has been extensively used in the research fordesign and evaluation of public domain computer net-work, to evaluate various design options for NOC archi-tecture, including the design of router, communicationprotocol, Routing algorithms. NS-2 is an open source,object-oriented and discrete event driven network simula-tor written in C++ and OTcl. It is a very common andwidely used tool to simulate small and large area net-works .
In this study, we have modeled our NoC architectureconcepts with the widely used network simulator ns-2 .This tool has been widely applied in research related tothe design and evaluation of computer networks and toevaluate various design options for NoC architectures, including the design of routers, communication pro-tocols, etc.
In this section, we present the Simulation of NOC-7MR(NOC-septuple-Modular-Redundancy) and we sur-vey the ability and flexibility of ns2 in NOC-Redundancysimulations. Mapping an application, which is describedby a parameterized task graph, on to NoC is a key re-search problem in NoC design. Mesh topology has beenused in a variety of interconnection network applicationsespecially for NoC design. However, the septuple-Modular-Redundancy network has not been studied yetas the underlying topology for NoCs.Figures 1 to 6 show different views of the 7mr-NOC..
the first view of 7mr-NOC Topology
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