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Mcquay Heatpump Design hvac

Mcquay Heatpump Design hvac

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Published by mw9412096
Theory based design manual
Theory based design manual

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Published by: mw9412096 on Jan 05, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/27/2013

 
Catalog 330
 Water Source Heat PumpDesign Manual
 A Design Manual for the Professional Engineer
 ® 
 
Catalog
C: 330-1
 
Page 2 / Catalog 330-1
Table of contents
The decentralized approach............................................................................................3-4Chapter 1. Design steps................................................................................................5-23 Allowable flow rates for closed system piping..........................................................9Flow graph for closed system piping......................................................................10Sizing the cooling coil condensate drain piping.....................................................19Chapter 2. Boilerless systems (all electric)......................................................................24Chapter 3. System variations...........................................................................................25Chapter 4. Water treatment..............................................................................................30Chapter 5. Control of loop water temperatures...............................................................32Chapter 6. Control of heat pump units............................................................................37Chapter 7. Miscellaneous design considerations............................................................41Chapter 8. Building system design worksheet................................................................46
(5/99)“McQuay” is a registered trademark of AAF-McQuay Incorporated.©AAF-McQuay Incorporated 1999. All rights reserved throughout the world.The information in this catalog supersedes and replaces previous (catalogues)(bulletins) with regards to AAF-McQuay Terminal Air Conditioning products. Illustrations cover the general appearance of AAF-McQuay products at the time of publication and AAF-McQuay reserves the right to make changes in design and construction at anytime without notice.
 
Catalog 330-1 / Page 3
The decentralized approach
Multi-zone or multi-room buildings have two characteristicswhose importance HVAC system engineers too frequentlyunderestimate: diversity and seasonal loads (see page 4).Diversity can be defined as the non-occurrence of part ofthe cooling load. The probability of having all the peoplepresent in the building, all lights operating (or operable) andall heat producing equipment operating at the time of peakdesign load is slight with lower probability on larger build-ings. Most engineers allow for diversity of cooling load byselecting equipment with a cooling capacity smaller thanthe maximum potential cooling load. The degree of differ-ence is strictly a judgment factor. If the engineer guesseswrong, or the usage pattern of the building changes, thecooling system may wind up oversized or inadequate.Nearly all central HVAC systems have poor part-load ef-ficiencies. At design load conditions, the best central sys-tems operate magnificently, but during most of the annualoperating hours, they consume a disproportionate amountof energy, maintaining a holding pattern, contributing verylittle energy to actual building heating or cooling.The desirability of having heating or cooling available inany room, at any time, is obvious, but most central systemsfill this need with “energy bucking” approaches, which di-vide the air conditioning medium (air or water) in two; part isoverheated and part is overcooled. The medium is deliveredto the space, mixing the hot and cold quantities as requiredto maintain the desired space temperatures.Other systems are energy neutral, and newer versionshave been falsely touted as energy conservation systems.Compared with their energy wasting predecessors, they rep-resent a considerable advancement in the state of the art,but they do not actually store surplus energy for later use.The first major step in reducing the annual power con-sumption for a multi-zone or multi-room building is to abandonthe central system approach in functional areas where it hasbeen demonstrated unfit — the heating and cooling of thevarious rooms. Present technology still mandates centralsprinkler systems, and probably fresh air ventilation systems.For the heating and cooling functions, however,
a terminalunit in each zone or room provides inherent energy con-servation
. Each unit heats or cools as required, wheneverdesired, only to the extent necessary, thus allowing the real-ization of diversity in heating, cooling and electrical use.The second major step is to make the terminal units wa-ter source heat pumps, and interconnect them with a closedwater loop. This allows transfer of energy from satisfiedspaces in the building to areas lacking sufficient energy. Theclosed water loop permits efficient energy transfer (there isprobably no
 less
efficient method of transferring energy overlong distances than using air as a heat transfer medium).The Closed Water Loop Heat Pump System has gainedwide acceptance among owners and designers to the pointwhere it is the preferred system for multi-room or multi-zonebuildings. For example, a U.S. Department of Defensedirective states, “The most efficient method of using elec-tric power for heating is the water source heat pump… Ac-cordingly, when consideration is being given to the use ofheat pumps, the water source should be evaluated first…the air source heat pump is second choice”.
Unlike mostunitary heat pump systems, the closed loop system is em-ployed to the greatest advantage in cold weather climatestypified by Toronto, Minneapolis, Syracuse, or Milwaukee. Among the many benefits realized with a water sourceheat pump system are:
q
Ultimate flexibility of zoning.
q
Maximum diversity at all times; the units only operate asrequired by their individual space controls.
q
 Ability to heat one zone and cool an adjacent zone.
q
Smaller mechanical rooms because no large central re-frigeration equipment is required.
q
Building volume is decreased, or usable space is in-creased, because ductwork is minimal and basic energytransmission occurs through electrical wiring anduninsulated pipes.
q
Less field labor required to install than with built-upsystems.
q
Simplicity of design. No complicated control valves orextensive, field erected automatic temperature controlsystem.
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Maximum system reliability. A failure in one unit does notaffect the others.
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No necessity to employ a licensed equipment operator,and less expensive maintenance contracts, as any unitmay be removed, replaced by a spare, and the unit re-turned to a local repair depot for repair, and later returnedto the building for use as a spare.
q
Maximum architectural design flexibility, both in basicbuilding configuration and interior layout. Terminal unitsare available in under-window console models, ceilingconcealed or vertical closet types, large package units incapacities to 30 tons (105 kW), and rooftop units wherethere is no interior place to install the equipment.
q
Minimum initial investment for speculative type office orapartment buildings, as the water loop can be designedand installed without prior knowledge of the ultimate floorarrangement within the leased areas, and terminal equip-ment can be later purchased and installed as required.
q
Basically a constant year-round electrical demand, withany supplementary heating requirement obtainable on anoff peak basis by limiting the demand, or through the useof a load control which enables the water temperature tobe increased during periods of off peak demand.
DOD memorandum, May 12, 1975, Perry J. Fliakas, Deputy Secretary for Installations and Housing

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