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Chapter 02

# Chapter 02

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Mechanics
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06/15/2012

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12
C HAPTER 2
Fluid Statics

2.1
Σ
Fmapzps yza
yyyy
= =
: sin
α ρ
2
Σ
Fmapyps yzag yz
zzzz
= = +
: cos
α ρ ρ
22 Since
sy
cos
α
=
and
sz
sin
α
=
, we have

pp ya
yy
=
ρ
2and
( )
pp zag
zz
= +
ρ
2 Let
y
0
and
z
0:

pp pp
y z
==
00
= =
ppp
yz
.2.2
p
=
γ
h.
a) 9810
×
10 = 98 100 Pa or 98.1 kPab) (0.8
×
9810)
×
10 = 78 480 Pa or 78.5 kPac) (13.6
×
9810)
×
10 = 1 334 000 Pa or 1334 kPad) (1.59
×
9810)
×
10 = 155 980 Pa or 156.0 kPae) (0.68
×
9810)
×
10 = 66 710 Pa or 66.7 kPa2.3
h
=
p/
γ
.
a)
h
= 250 000/9810 = 25.5 mb)
h
= 250 000/(0.8
×
9810) = 31.9 mc)
h
= 250 000/(13.6
×
9810) = 1.874 md)
h
= 250 000/(1.59
×
9810) = 16.0 me)
h
= 250 000/(0.68
×
9810) = 37.5 m2.4 (
C
)
(13.69810)(28.50.0254)96600 Pa
Hg
ph
γ
= = × × × =
2.5
S
=2014462.420
ph
γ
×=×
= 2.31.
ρ

= 1.94
×
2.31 = 4.48 slug/ft
3
.2.6 a)
p =
γ
h
= 0.76
×
(13.6
×
9810) = 9810
h
.
h
= 10.34 m.b) (13.6
×
9810)
×
0.75 = 9810
h
.
h
= 10.2 m.c) (13.6
×
9810)
×
0.01 = 9810
h
.
h
= 0.136 m or 13.6 cm.2.7 a)
p =
γ
1
h
1
+
γ
2
h
2
= 9810
×
0.2 + (13.6
×
9810)
×
0.02 = 4630 Pa or 4.63 kPa.b) 9810
×
0.052 + 15 630
×
0.026 = 916 Pa or 0.916 kPa.c) 9016
×
3 + 9810
×
2 + (13.6
×
9810)
×
0.1 = 60 010 Pa or 60.0 kPa.
y z p z
y p y
z p
s
s
α
z
y
ρ
g

13
2.8
p =
ρ
gh
= 0.0024
×
32.2 (–10,000) = –773 psf or –5.37 psi.2.9 (
D
)
0
840001.009.81400044760 Pa
ppgh
ρ
= − = × × =
2.10
inside
1009.81313.51 Pa.2872531009.81311.67 Pa.287293
outsideoobaseii
pg pghh RT  p pg pghh RT
ρρ
×= = = × =××= = = × =×
= 1.84 PaIf no wind is present this
p
base
would produce a small infiltration since the higherpressure outside would force outside air into the bottom region (through cracks).2.11
p =
ρ
gdh
where
h = –z.
From the given information
S
= 1.0 +
h
/100 since
S
(0) = 1 and
S
(10) = 1.1. By definition
ρ
= 1000
S,
where
ρ
water
= 1000 kg/m
3
.Then
dp
= 1000 (1 +
h
/100)
gdh.
Integrate:
dphgdh
p
= +
∫ ∫
10001100
0100
(/)
p
= × +×
100098110102100
2
.()= 103 000 Pa or 103 kPaNote: we could have used an average
S
:
S
avg
= 1.05, so that
ρ
avg
= 1050 kg/m
3
.2.12
v
= + +
p p xi p y j p z
\$ \$\$
= –
ρ
ai
x
\$
ρα
y
j
\$
ρα
z
\$
ρ
gk
\$
= –
( )
ρ
aiaja
xyz
\$ \$\$
+ +
ρ
gk
\$
= –
ρ
v
a
ρ
v
g

= +
vv v
pag
ρ
()
2.13
/ 00
[()/]
gRatm
ppTz
α
α
=
= 100 [(288
0.0065
×
300)/288]
9.81/.0065
×
287
= 96.49 kPa
ppgh
atm
= − = ×× ×
ρ
1001002872889813001000../ = 96.44 kPa% error =969696100.44.49.49
×
=
0.052%The density variation can be ignored over heights of 300 m or less.

14
2.14
/ 000
gRatmatm
Tz ppppp
α
α
 = =  
= 1002880065202881
9810065287
×   
×
.
./.
=
0.237 Pa or
0.000237 kPaThis change is very small and can most often be ignored.2.15 Eq. 1.5.11 gives 310,000144.
dp
ρρ
× =
But,
dp =
ρ
gdh
. Therefore,
7
4.46410
gdh
ρ ρρ
×=
or
27
32.24.46410
dh
ρρ
=×
Integrate, using
0
ρ
= 2.00 slug/ft
3
:
2720
32.24.46410
h
dh
ρ
ρρ
=∫ ×
.
112
ρ
  
= 7.21
×
10
-7

h
or
7
2114.4210
h
ρ
=×
Now,
77700
22ln(114.4210)114.421014.4210
hh
gg pgdhdhhh
ρ
= = = ×∫ × ×
Assume
ρ
= const:
2.032.264.4
pghhh
ρ
= = × × =
a) For
h
= 1500 ft:
p
accurate
= 96,700 psf and
p
estimate
= 96,600 psf.96,60096,700% error 1000.103 %96,700
= × =
b) For
h
= 5000 ft:
p
accurate
= 323,200 psf and
p
estimate
= 322,000 psf.322,000323,200% error 1000.371 %323,200
= × =
c) For
h
= 15,000 ft:
p
accurate
= 976,600 psf and
p
estimate
= 966,000 psf.966,000976,600% error 1001.085 %976,600
= × =
2.16 Use the result of Example 2.2:
p
= 101
e
gz/RT
.a)
p
= 101
e
9.81
×
10 000/287
×
273
= 28.9 kPa.b)
p
= 101
e
9.81
×
10 000/287
×
288
= 30.8 kPa.c)
p
= 101
e
9.81
×
10 000/287
×
258
= 26.9 kPa.2.17 Use Eq. 2.4.8:
p
=
9.810.0065287
101(10.0065/288).
z
×

a)
z
= 3000.
p
= 69.9 kPa. b)
z
= 6000.
p
= 47.0 kPa.c)
z
= 9000.
p
= 30.6 kPa. d)
z
= 11 000.
p
= 22.5 kPa.