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SQL Oracle

SQL Oracle

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Published by rakesheluru

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Published by: rakesheluru on Jun 15, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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35-38 _____________________ Joins39-43 _______________________DML43- 47 _______________________DDL48-50________________________TCL51- 54________________________DCL55-59__________________Index, Cluster
Introduction to Databases.
A database is a collection of Data (Information). Examples of databases, which we use in ourdaily life, is an Attendance Register, Telephone Directory, Muster Rule.
Database Management System(DBMS):
A database management system is a collection of programs written to manage a database. That is, it acts as a interface between user and database.
A Database Management System based on Relational Data Model is known as RelationalDatabase Management System (RDBMS).The father of Relational Data Model was Dr. E.F. CODD. He developed the relational datamodel by taking the concept from Relational Algebra in June-1970.Relational Data Model is nothing but 12 Rules which are named after Codd as Codd Rules.According to Codd a package can be called as RDBMS only if it satisfies the Codd Rules.
Oracle is an Object-Relational Database Management System. It is the leading RDBMS vendorworldwide. Nearly half of RDBMS worldwide market is owned by Oracle.
Every Oracle Database Contains Logical and Physical Structures. Logical Structuresare tablespaces, Schema objects, extents and segments. Physical Structures areDatafiles, Redo Log Files, Control File.A database is divided into logical storage units called
table spaces
, which grouprelated logical structures together. Each Table space in turn consists of one are moredata files.All the tables and other objects are stored in table space logically, but physically theyare stored in the datafiles associated with the tablespace.
Every Oracle database has a set of two or more
redo log files
. The set of redo log filesfor a database is collectively known as the database's redo log. A redo log is made upof redo entries (also called
redo records
).The primary function of the redo log is to record all changes made to data. If a failureprevents modified data from being permanently written to the datafiles, the changescan be obtained from the redo log so work is never lost.Every Oracle database has a
control file
. A control file contains the database nameand locations of all datafiles and redo log files.Every Oracle database also has a Parameter File. Parameter file contains the name of the Database, Memory Settings and Location of Control file.
Data types and Creating Tables
A table is the data structure that holds data in a relational database. A table iscomposed of rows and columns.A table in Oracle Ver. 7.3 can have maximum 255 Columns and in Oracle Ver. 8 andabove a table can have maximum 1000 columns. Number of rows in a table isunlimited in all the versions.

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