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Engineering.geology.field.manual

Engineering.geology.field.manual

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Published by: Andre Oliveira Fonseca on Jun 16, 2012
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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
This manual provides guidelines and instructions forperforming and documenting field work. The manual isa ready reference for anyone engaged in field-orientedengineering geology or geotechnical engineering. Themanual is written for general engineering geology use aswell as to meet Reclamation needs. The application of geology to solving engineering problems is emphasized,rather than academic or other aspects of geology. Themanual provides guidance for:Geologic classification and description of rock androck discontinuitiesEngineering classification and description of soiland surficial depositsApplication of standard indexes, descriptors, andterminologyGeologic mapping, sampling, testing, andperforming discontinuity surveysExploratory drillingSoil and rock loggingAcquisition of groundwater dataCore loggingSoil loggingInvestigation of hazardous waste sites
 
FIELD MANUAL
2
 Although the methods described in this manual areappropriate for most situations, complex sites, conditions,or design needs may require modification or expansion othe suggestions, criteria, and indices to fit specificrequirements.Many of the chapters in this manual will always needrevision because they cover material that changes astechnology changes. Critical comments, especially sug-gestions for improvement, are welcome from all users,not just the Bureau of Reclamation.The appendix contains abbreviations and acronymscommonly used in engineering geology.
 
 
1
Brackets refer to bibliography entries at end of each chapter.
Chapter 2
GEOLOGIC TERMINOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATIONS FORGEOLOGIC MATERIALS
Established References for GeologicalTerminology
 Adaptations or refinements of the Bureau of Reclamation(Reclamation) standards presented in this and subse-quent chapters may be established to meet specific designrequirements or site-specific geologic complexity when justified.The
Glossary of Geology,
Fourth Edition [1]
1
, published bythe American Geological Institute (AGI), 1997, is acceptedby Reclamation as the standard for definitions of geologicwords and terms except for the nomenclature, definitions,or usage established in this chapter and chapters 3, 4,and 5.The North American Stratigraphic Code (NASC) [2] is theaccepted system for classifying and naming stratigraphicunits. However, Reclamation's engineering geology pro-grams are focused primarily on the engineering prop-erties of geologic units, not on the details of formalstratigraphic classification. Stratigraphic names are notalways consistent within the literature, often change fromone locality to another, and do not necessarily conveyengineering properties or rock types. Use of stratigraphicnames in Reclamation documents normally will beinformal (lower case) (see NASC for discussion of formal versus informal usage). Exceptions to informal usage arefor names previously used formally in the area in discus-sions of geologic setting or regional geology. Normally,

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