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Published by Saleem Malik

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Published by: Saleem Malik on Jun 16, 2012
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Part I
 Tests on Aggregate, Portland Cement andPortland Cement Concrete
Unit 1:
Normal Consistency and Times of Set of Portland Cement
Unit 2-3:
Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Portland Cement
Unit 4:
Physical Characteristics of Coarse Aggregate(Grading, Absorption Capacity, Specific Gravity, and UnitWeight)
Unit 5:
Optimal Selection of Fine to Coarse Aggregates Ratio
Unit 6-9:
Properties of Hardened Concrete(Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, and Modulus of Elasticity)
What is Concrete?
Concrete is a composite material consisting of coarse and fine aggregates(natural or crushed stones and sand) embedded in a hard matrix of cement-water paste.The cement-water paste, acting as a binder, fills the space between the aggregateparticles and bonds or glues them together.While both coarse and fine aggregate are inert, naturally-found materials, thecement is a man-made material which reacts with water to form cement paste. With time,the cement undergoes chemical reaction with water and results in the hardening of thecement paste. This chemical reaction is often referred to as the hydration process.
Concrete Mix Design
The solid portion of hardened concrete is composed of inert mineral aggregatesand the hardened cement paste. Such hardened concrete should not only satisfy certaindesign requirements in its hardened state, but other design requirements should also besatisfied in its freshly mixed or plastic state. The purpose of a concrete mix design is toproportion its main ingredients in such a way that the resulting concrete mix satisfies thefollowing:1) The properties which are important when the concrete is in its fresh plastic state, i.e.:a) workability, andb) finishabilityThese are affected by the physical properties of fine and coarse aggregate
(grading, shape and surface characteristics), the fine to coarse aggregate ratio and cementand water contents.
102) The properties which are important when concrete is in its hardened state:a) strength, andb) durabilityThese are mainly affected by water-cement ratio, cement content, and age.3) Concrete is economical that uses as little cement as possible without prejudice tothe strength and workability.In summary, the elements of good concrete are influenced by:- aggregate properties (grading, shape and surface characteristics, absorption).- paste properties (fineness of cement, water quality, water-cement ratio).The purpose of laboratory work and experiments, using standardized procedures, is totrain students for the proper selection of concrete ingredients, their proportioning, and forcarrying out various quality control tests on cement, aggregate and cement concrete.

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