Rock physics model of glauconitic greensand from the North Sea
, Tapan Mukerji
, Jack Dvorkin
, and Ida L. Fabricius
The objective of this study was to establish a rock physicsmodel of North Sea Paleogene greensand. The Hertz-Mindlincontact model is widely used to calculate elastic velocities of sandstone as well as to calculate the initial sand-pack modulusof the soft-sand, stiff-sand, and intermediate-stiff-sand models.When mixed minerals in rock are quite different, e.g., mixturesof quartz and glauconite in greensand, the Hertz-Mindlin con-tact model of single type of grain may not be enough to predict elastic velocity. Our approach is first to develop a Hertz-Mindlincontact model for a mixture of quartz and glauconite. Next, weuse this Hertz-Mindlin contact model of two types of grains asthe initial modulus for a soft-sand model and a stiff-sand model.By using these rock physics models, we examine the relation-ship between elastic modulus and porosity in laboratory andlogging data and link rock-physics properties to greensanddiagenesis. Calculated velocity for mixtures of quartz and glau-conite from the Hertz-Mindlin contact model for two types of grains are higher than velocity calculated from the Hertz-Mindlin single mineral modelusing the effectivemineral modulipredicted from the Hill
s average. Results of rock-physics mod-eling and thin-section observations indicate that variations in theelastic properties of greensand can be explained by two maindiagenetic phases: silica cementation and berthierine cementa-tion. These diagenetic phases dominate the elastic properties of greensand reservoir. Initially, greensand is a mixture of mainlyquartz and glauconite; when weakly cemented, it has relativelylow elastic modulus and can be modeled by a Hertz-Mindlincontact model of two types of grains. Silica-cemented greensandhas a relatively high elastic modulus and can be modeled by anintermediate-stiff-sand or a stiff-sand model. Berthierine cement has different growth patterns in different parts of the greensand,resulting in a soft-sand model and an intermediate-stiff-sandmodel.
Greensands are sandstones composed of a mixture of stiff clasticquartz grains and soft glauconite grains. Glauconite grains are por-ous and composed of aggregates of iron-bearing clay. Porosity inthis sediment is found at two scales: macroporosity between grainsand microporosity within grains (Figure1). Greensand petroleum reservoirs occur world-wide, e.g., the mid-Cretaceous Safaniya Sandstone Member in Saudi Arabia (Cagatay et al., 1996), the Low-er Cretaceous Glauconitic sandstone in Alberta, Canada (Tilley andLongstaffe, 1984), the Upper Cretaceous Shannon sandstone inWyoming, USA (Ranganathan and Tye, 1986), a Lower CretaceousGreensand offshore Ireland (Winn, 1994) and a late PaleoceneGreensand in central part of the North Sea (Solymar, 2002;Solymar
et al., 2003;Hossain et al., 2009;Hossain et al., 2011a, b;
Stokkendal et al., 2009). However, evaluation of greensand reser-voirs has challenged geologists, engineers and petrophysicsts.Glauconite affects the elastic properties, porosity, and permeabilityof reservoir rocks (Diaz et al., 2003). Glauconite is also ductile(Ranganathan and Tye, 1986), so it can cause nonelastic deforma-tion of greensand (Hossain et al., 2009) and, hence, can affect re-servoir quality. Greensands generally show low resistivity in thereservoir zone due to the large amount of bound water in the glau-conite, yet free hydrocarbons can be produced because rather thanbeing pore-filling, glauconite is part of the sand-size grains of theframework (Slot-Petersen et al., 1998).The seismic reflections depend on contrasts in elastic properties;rock-physics modeling allows us to link seismic properties withgeologic properties.Avseth et al. (2005)show that rock-physics
Manuscript received by the Editor 9 November 2010; revised manuscript received 29 April 2011; published online 13 January 2012.
Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, Lyngby, Denmark. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com.
Stanford University, Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Stanford, California, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stanford University, Department of Geophysics, Stanford, California, USA. E-mail: email@example.com.© 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.
GEOPHYSICS. VOL. 76, NO. 6 (NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2011); P. E199
E209, 12 FIGS.10.1190/GEO2010-0366.1