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Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing

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Published by Raka Pikatan

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Published by: Raka Pikatan on Jun 16, 2012
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06/16/2012

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 Natural Language Processing
 
1: INTRODUCTION
 
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 
It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligentcomputer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understandhuman intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologicallyobservable. As a theory in the philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence (or AI) is the viewthat human cognitive mental states can be duplicated in computing machinery.Accordingly, an intelligent system is nothing but an information processing system. Discussions of AI commonly draw a distinction between weak and strong AI. Weak AIholds that suitably programmed machines can simulate human cognition. Strong AI, bycontrast, maintains that suitably programmed machines are capable of cognitive mentalstates. The weak claim is unproblematic, since a machine which merely simulates humancognition need not have conscious mental states. It is the strong claim, though, that hasgenerated the most discussion, since this does entail that a computer can have cognitivemental states. In addition to the weak/strong distinction, it is also helpful to distinguish between other related notions. First, cognitive
 simulation
is when a device such as acomputer simply has the same the same input and output as a human. Second, cognitive
replication
occurs when the same internal causal relations are involved in a computationaldevice as compared with a human brain. Third, cognitive
emulation
occurs when acomputational device has the same causal relations
and 
is made of the same stuff as ahuman brain. This condition clearly precludes silicon-based computing machines fromemulating human cognition. Proponents of weak AI commit themselves only to the firstcondition, namely cognitive simulation. Proponents of strong AI, by contrast, committhemselves to the second condition, namely cognitive replication, but not the thirdcondition. 
2: APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
 
 
2.1: GAME PLAYINGYou can buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. There issome AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute forcecomputation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. To beat a world champion by brute force and known reliable heuristics requires being able to look at 200 million positions per second.2.2: SPEECH RECOGNITIONIn the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes.Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a systemusing speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. It is quite convenient. On thethe other hand, while it is possible to instruct some computers using speech, most usershave gone back to the keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient. 
2.3 : UNDERSTANDING NATURAL LANGUAGE
Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. Parsing sentences is notenough either. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of thedomain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains.
2.4: NEURAL NETWORKS
The field of Artificial Neural networks looks at utilizing data structures that are designed tomimic neurons within the brain to perform data recognition and classification. They can be(and have been) used for a
huge
variety of tasks: predicting the stock market, extract imagedata from radar information, controlling cars, robots - you name it.The neat thing about neural networks is that they learn. They are basically fancy mappingfunctions: they will map one group of vector inputs to another, but they learn how to dothis mapping themselves, either through supervised or unsupervised learning.They can be applied to areas such as sound and image processing or even robot controllers- making for more interesting research and results.
2.5: ROBOTICS
Robotics is almost the best of both worlds since you get the "neat" factor of ArtificialIntelligence coupled with the physicality of the robot - ie, it is something you can touch, build and interact with.
 
2.6: ARTIFICIAL LIFE
Artificial Life is a fast moving field that looks at simulating life within a computer. It can be life in the most exact sense (mimicking biological phenomena such as digestion andnervous systems) or, more commonly, consists of abstractions of life. A lot of a-life comesin the form of cellular automata. CA are normally organized on a 2D plane and are

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