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Published by Salai Kishwar

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Published by: Salai Kishwar on Jun 17, 2012
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03/31/2013

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Radiopill:Radiopillwhenswallowed,willtraveltheGItract(Gastrointestinaltract)andsimultaneouslyperformmultiparameterinphysiologicalanalysis.Aftercompletingitsmissionitwillcomeoutofthehumanbodybynormalbowelmovement.Thepillis10mmindiameterand30mmlongweighingaround5gmandrecordsparametersliketemperature,pH,conductivityanddissolvedoxygeninrealtime.Thepillcomprisesanouterbiocompatiblecapsuleencasingmicrosensors,acontrolchip,radiotransmitterandtwosilver-oxidecells.INSIDETHECAPSULE:Theschematicdiagramofthemicroelectronicpillisasshowninfigurebelow.Theoutercasingofthepillismadebymachiningchemicallyresistantpolyetheterketone,whichisbiocompatible.Itismadeupoftwohalves,whicharejoinedtogetherbyscrewing.ThepillhousesaPCBchipcarrierthatactsasacommonplatformforattachmentof,1.sensors,2.application-specificintegratedcircuit(ASIC),3.radiotransmitterand4.batteries.Taskofthesensors:Thedeviceisprovidedwithfourmicrosensors,namely1.asilicondiode,2.anion-selectivefieldeffecttransistor(ISFET),3.apairofdirect--contactgoldelectrodesand4.a3-electrodeelectrochemicalcell.Silicondiode:Thesilicondiodeisusedtomeasurethebodycoretemperatureandalsoidentifylocalchangesassociatedwithtissueinflammationandulcers.ISFET:1.ItisusedtomeasurepH.2.ItisusedtodeterminethepresenceofpathologicalconditionsassociatedwithabnormalpHlevels,particularlyassociatedwithpancreaticdisease,hypertension,inflammatoryboweldisease,theactivityoffermentingbacteria,thelevelofacidexcretion,refluxtotheoesophagusandtheeffectofGI-specificdrugsontargetorgans.Goldelectrodes:Apairofdirectcontactgoldelectrodeisusedtomeasureconductivity.TheconductivitysensorisusedtomonitorthecontentsoftheGItractbymeasuringwaterandsaltabsorption,bilesecretionandthebreakdownoforganiccomponentsintochargedcolloids.3-electrodeelectrochemicalcell:The3-electrodeelectrochemicalcellisusedtodetectthelevelofdissolvedoxygeninsolution.TheoxygensensormeasurestheoxygengradientfromtheproximaltothedistalGItract.Thisenablesavarietyofsyndromestobeinvestigatedincludingthegrowthofaerobicbacteriaorbacterialinfection.Theimplementationofagenericoxygensensorwillalsoenablethedevelopmentofafirstgenerationenzymelinkedamperometricbiosensors,thusextendingtherangeoffutureapplicationstoinclude(eg.)glucoseandlactatesensing,aswellasimmunosensingprotocols.ThemicroelectronicsensorsareattachedtothePCBchipcarrierbya10pin,0.5mmpitchpolyimideribbonconnector.ThePCBcarrierismadefrom1.6mmthickfiberglassboard.ThetransmitterandtheASICarealsointegratedontheboard.Theintegratedradiotransmittersendsthesignaltoalocalreceiverpriortodataacquitiononacomputer.Theunitispoweredbytwostandard1.55Vsilver-oxidecellswithacapacityof175mAh.Thebatteriesareconnectedinseriesandprovidean
 
operatingtimeof40hoursattheratedpowerconsumptionof12.1mW.Thesensorchipsareprovidedatthefrontendofthepillandareexposedtotheambientenvironmentthroughaccessports.Theyarescaledbytwosetsofstainless-steelclampsincorporatingano.8ï
mthicksheetoffluoroelastomerseal.The3mmdiameteraccesschannelinthecenterofeachsteelclampexposesthesensingregionofthechipstotheambientenvironment.SENSORS:Theschematicdiagramofsensorchipsisasshownbelow.Thesensorsarefabricatedontwosiliconchipslocatedatthefrontendofthecapsule.Chip1,measuring4.75x5mm2,comprisesthesilicondiodetemperaturesensor,thepHISFETsensorandthetwo-electrode5x10-4mm2conductivitysensor.Predefinedn-channelsinthep-typebulksiliconformthebasisforthediodeandtheISFET.The15x600ï
mfloatinggateoftheISFETisprecoveredwitha50nmthickproton-sensitivelayerofSi3N4forpHdetection.ThepHsensorconsistsoftheintegrated3x10-2mm2Ag/Agclreferenceelectrode,a500ï
mdiameterand10-nLelectrolytechamberand15x600ï
mfloatinggateoftheISFETsensor.Chip2,measuring5x5mm2,comprisestheelectrochemicaloxygensensorandaNiCrresistancethermometer.Theoxygensensorisembeddedintheelectrolytechamber.The3-electrodeelectrochemicalcelloftheoxygensensorcomprisesthe1x10-1mm2counterelectrodemadeofgold,amicroelectrodearrayof57x10ï
mdiameterworkinggoldelectrodesandanintegrated1.5x10-2mm2Ag/Agclreferenceelectrode.Themicroelectrodearrayhasaninter-electrodespacingof25ï
mandacombinedareaof4.5x10-3mm2.Itpromoteselectrodepolarizationandreducesresponsetimebyenhancingtransporttotheelectrodesurface.TheNiCrresistancethermometerismadefroma100nmthicklayerofNiCrandis5ï
mwideand11mmlong.The500nmthicklayerofthermallyevaporatedsilverisusedtofabricatethereferenceelectrode.ItisthenoxidizedtoAg/Agclbychronopotentiometry.Controlchip:TheASICisthecontrolunitthatconnectstogetherothercomponentsofthemicrosystemasshowninthefigurebelow.Itcontainsananaloguesignalconditioningmoduleoperatingthesensors,10-bitADCandDACconvertersandadigitaldataprocessingmodule.Anoscillatorprovidestheclocksignal.Thetemperaturecircuitrybiasesthediodeatconstantcurrentsoachangeintemperaturereflectsacorrespondingchangeindiodevoltage.ThepHISFETsensorisbiasedasasimplesourceanddrainfolloweratconstantcurrentwiththedrain-sourcevoltagechangingwiththethresholdvoltageandpH.Theconductivitycircuitoperatesatdirectcurrent,measuringtheresistanceacrosstheelectrodepairasaninversefunctionofsolutionconductivity.Anincorporatedpotentiostatcircuitoperatestheamperometricoxygensensorwitha10-bitDACcontrollingtheworkingelectrodepotentialwithrespecttothereference.Theanaloguesignalshaveafull-scaledynamicrangeof2.8VwiththeresolutiondeterminedbytheADC.ThesearesequencedthroughamultiplexerpriorofbeingdigitizedbytheADC.Thebandwidthforeachchannelislimitedbythesamplingintervalof0.2msec.Thedigitaldataprocessingmoduleprocessesthedigitizedsignalsthroughtheuseofaserialbitstreamdatacompressionalgorithm,whichdecideswhentransmissionisrequiredbycomparingthemostrecentsample

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