a living biological system (e.g., cells, tissues,or whole organisms) that utilises a biochemicalmechanism of recognition. The samplingcomponent of a biosensor contains a bio-sensitive layer that can either contain bioreceptors or be made of bioreceptorscovalently attached to the transducer.Transducer
Transduction can be accomplished by optical, electrochemical, and mass detectionmethods. A Nano biosensor or Nano sensor is a biosensor that has dimensions on thenanometre .size scale. Nanosensors could provide the tools to investigate important biological processes at the cellular level
The three types of Nano sensors with medicalapplication possibilities are a) Cantilever arraysensors and b) Nanotube sensors c) Nanowiresensors.
a)Cantilever array sensors
Micro fabricated cantilever array sensors areused as ultra-sensitive mechanical sensorsconverting (biochemical or physical processesinto a recordable signal inmicroelectromechanical systems (MEMS) or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).Cantilevers are typically rectangular-shapedsilicon bars. The unique feature of microcantilevers is their ability to undergo bending due to molecular adsorption or bindinginduced changes in surface tension.
Applications of Cantilever array sensors
Cantilever sensors for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus
Medical applications of cantilever-based sensorshave been proposed for early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and can improve blood glucosemonitoring using small and ultra-sensitiveanalytical platforms .In patients with diabetesmellitus, ketones are produced due to thedeterioration of blood insulin concentrations.Acetone is one of these ketones which isexcreted in urine or expired as vapour inexhaled air. Disposable test kits are used todetect acetone in urine. Acetone in exhaled air can only be detected by the physician as a putridsmell without any quantification. Small amountsof acetone in a patient’s breath can be detected by cantilever array sensor technique which mayattribute to early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Cantilever sensors for bacteria, fungi,viruses
The Devices have also been developed to detect bacteria, fungal spores and viruses. Theinteraction between specific antibodies, for instance antibodies to
,immobilised on the surface of the cantilever,and antigens on cell membrane surface results inadditional mass loading detected by the device.The detection sensitivity is in the order of asingle bacterium corresponding to a mass of ~1