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Part3 Ch3 Resilient

Part3 Ch3 Resilient

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Published by: Lupu Ciprian on Jun 17, 2012
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Page 1
Copyright 2007 Koren & Krishna, Morgan-KaufmanPart.3 .1
FAULT TOLERANT SYSTEMS
http://www.ecs.umass.edu/ece/koren/FaultTolerantSystems
Part 3 -Resilient StructuresChapter 2 HW Fault Tolerance
Copyright 2007 Koren & Krishna, Morgan-KaufmanPart.3 .2
M-of-N Systems
AnM-of-Nsystem consists ofNidentical modules
Fails when fewer thanMmodules arefunctional
Best-known example -The Triplex (TMR)
Three identical modules whose outputs are voted on
This is a2-of-3system: as long as a majorityof the processors produce correct results, thesystem will be functional
 
Page 2
Copyright 2007 Koren & Krishna, Morgan-KaufmanPart.3 .3
Reliability of M-of-N Systems
Nidentical modules
R(t)
-reliability of an individual module
The reliability of the system is the probabilitythatN-Mor fewer modules have failed by timet(or at leastMare functional)
where
=
=
 M  N ii N inof m
 R R i N  R
0
)())(1()(
)(
)!(!!
)(
i N i N i N 
=
=
=
 N  M ii N i
 R R i N 
))(1()(
)(
Copyright 2007 Koren & Krishna, Morgan-KaufmanPart.3 .4
Correlated Failures in M-of-NSystems
Key to the high reliability -statisticalindependence of failures in modules
Correlated failure can greatly diminish reliability
Example: -probability that the entiresystem suffers a global failure
=
=
 N  M ii N icor cor nof m
 R R i N  R
q
))(1()()1()(
)(
cor 
q
 
Page 3
Copyright 2007 Koren & Krishna, Morgan-KaufmanPart.3 .5
M-of-N Systems -Modes ofCorrelation
If system is not designed carefully, thecorrelated failure factor can dominate theoverall failure probability
Different modes of correlation among modulesexist -not necessarily a global failure
Correlated failure rates are extremelydifficult to estimate
From now on we will assume statisticallyindependent failures in modules
Copyright 2007 Koren & Krishna, Morgan-KaufmanPart.3 .6
Reliability of TMR -Triple ModularRedundant Cluster
M-of-Nsystem withM=2, N=3-system good if at least two modules are operational
A voter picks the majority output
Voter can fail -reliability of voter
vot 
(t )
=
vo
(t) ( 3R² (t) -2R³ (t) )
=
=
10
3
)())(1( 3)()(
)(
i
iivot tmr 
 R R i R R
=
=
32
3
))(1()( 3)(
)(
i
iivot 
 R R i R

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