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Design of Bolted Structural Joint

Design of Bolted Structural Joint

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Published by Dharmendra Jain

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Published by: Dharmendra Jain on Jun 18, 2012
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53them more economic than commercial bolts. The level of tightening achieved is adequate for joint designs wheredeveloped bolt tension is not significant. Behaviour of the boltunder applied loads is well known and accepted.
Category 8.8T
refers to both categories 8.8 TF and 8.8/TB
Category 8.8/TF
refers to high strength structural boltsStrength Grade 8.8 used in friction type joints, fully tensionedin a controlled manner to the requirements of AS 4100. AS 4100 specifies that friction type joints must be usedwhere no slip is acceptable. They should also be used inapplications where joints are subject to severe stressreversals or fluctuations as in dynamically loaded structuressuch as bridges, except in special circumstances asdetermined by the engineer. Where the choice is optional,bearing type joints are more economic than friction type.
Category 8.8/TB
refers to high strength structural boltsStrength Grade 8.8 used in bearing type joints, fullytensioned in a controlled manner to the requirements of  AS4100.
 Variation in design values with boltstrength and joint design
Design values vary with joint design, bolt type and level ofbolt tightening. The table below indicates the range ofdesign values in shear which apply to bolts of the samenominal diameter (M20) in varying strength grades, used invarious joint designs, in standard size holes (Kh=1), inaccordance with AS4100.
Design value in shear, kNBolt and ThreadsThreadsjointincluded inexcluded fromdesignationshear planeshear plane4.6/S44.662.38.8/S92.61298.8/TF35.535.58.8/TB92.6129*Slip factor = 0.35
Design for bolted structural joints
 A summary of structural design procedures to AS 4100 hasbeen produced by Arun Syam of Australian Institute of SteelConstruction and Arthur Firkins, Consultant, and publishedby Ajax Spurway Fasteners in their Fasteners Handbook’,pages 54 to 68.Copies are available from AISC and Ajax Spurway Fasteners.
Design for high strengthbolting
 AS 4100 specifies conditions for the application of highstrength structural bolts in both friction type and bearing type joints. Bolts are tightened to the same minimum inducedtension in both types of joint.
Tension type joints
For joints in which the only force is an applied tensile force inthe direction of the bolt axes, the tensile force on any boltshould not exceed 0.60 times the minimum bolt tensionspecified in AS 4100. Where fatigue conditions are involvedthe tensile force on any bolt should not exceed 0.50 timesthe minimum specified bolt tension. The following table gives maximum permissible bolt tensionsfor both static and fluctuating loads based on the aboverequirements.
Nominal diameterMaximum permissible bolt tension, kNof bolt, mmStatic loadFluctuating loadM165747M208772M24126105M30201167M36294245MinimumMinimumBolttensileyieldBoltingstrengthstrengthstrengthAustraliancategorygrade(MPa)(MPa)NameStandardMethod of tensioning/remarks4.6/S4.6400240CommercialAS 1111Use snug tight.Least costly and most commonlyavailable 4.6 grade bolt.8.8/S8.8830660High strengthAS 1252Bolts used are snug tight.structuralThe high strength structural bolthas a large bolt head and nutbecause it is designed to withstandfull tensioning.It can also be used in a snug tightcondition.8.8/TF8.8830660High strengthAS 1252structural bolt,fully tensionedFor categories 8.8/TF and 8.8/TB boltsfriction type jointare fully tensioned to the requirementsof AS 4100. Cost of tensioning is an8.8/TB8.8830660High strengthAS 1252important consideration in the usestructural bolt,of these bolting categories.fully tensionedbearing type joint
Bolt types and bolting categories
Friction type joints subject to shear, andcombined shear and tension.
High strength hexagon head bolts are used as described onpage 52.
Shear joints
In joints subject to shear only in the plane of the frictionfaces the number of high strength bolts and their dispositionshould be such that the resulting load at any bolt positiondoes not exceed the value:Slip factor* xnumber ofxminimum bolteffective interfacestension
*Slip Factor is the coefficient of friction on the mating surfaces andcan be defined as the ratio of the shear force between two pliesrequired to produce slip, to the force clamping the plies together.
 AS 4100 provides that the slip factor for clean as-rolled steelsurfaces shall be taken as 0.35. When protective coatingsare present on mating surfaces, AS 4100 specifies that theslip factor applied in design must be that of the protectivecoatings, based on test evidence as discussed under ‘Slipfactors’ page 48.
Joints subject to external tension in addition toshear
 An externally applied tension in the direction of the bolt axisreduces the effective clamping action of the bolt. To allow forthis effect, the Interaction Equation of AS 4100 (Rule
shall applybt= actual tensile force on the bolt.Bt= maximum permissible tensile force on the bolt.bv= actual shear force on the bolt.Bv= maximum permissible shear force on the bolt.
Bearing type joints subject to shear andcombined shear and tension
In bearing type joints, design follows conventional practicebased on allowable tension, shear and bearing values asspecified in AS 4100. Design of a joint as bearing type infersthat some slip into bearing may take place. AS 4100 specifies that shear or moment connections subjectto stress reversal, or where slip would not be acceptableshall be designed as friction type joints. Bearing type jointsmust be designed in accordance with AS 4100 using theallowable forces detailed in the table below. Provided jointsurfaces are free from oil, dirt, loose scale, loose rust, burrsor defects which would prevent solid seating, AS 4100permits the use of applied coatings without change indesign values.
Joints subject to shear force only
Bearing type joints subject to shear force only, and whichare less than 500 mm long in the direction of the appliedshear force, shall be proportioned so that the shear force onany bolt does not exceed the maximum permissible shearforce, Bvpermitted by the table.For joints greater than 500 mm long in the direction of theapplied shear force, the shear force on any bolt shall notexceed the following value, whichever is appropriate:500 to 1200 mm 6/7 Bv1200 mm and over 4/7 Bv
Joints subject to shear and tensile forces
Bearing type joints subject to shear and tensile forces shallbe proportioned so that the tensile force on any bolt doesnot exceed that permitted by the Parabolic InteractionEquation of AS 4100 (Rule
Maximum permissible applied forces using metric bolts to AS 1252
MaximumMaximum permissible applied forcespermissiblebearing type joints, kNtension:Friction typeShear BvNote (2)Diameterand bearingof bolt,type joints BtThreadedUnthreadedmmNote (1)portionportionBearing on projected area16575983Refer Clause of AS41002087931292412613318630201214291(1)Based on 0.6 times the minimum bolt tension shown in AS 4100. Maximum permissible stress = 0.6 proof stress, on tensile stress area A
defined in AS 1275.(2)Threaded portion – based on core area Acdefined in AS 1275.Unthreaded portion – based on area of shank (nominal diameter)

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