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What is HRM Session 2

What is HRM Session 2

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Published by Arpit Kumar

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Published by: Arpit Kumar on Jun 18, 2012
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07/03/2013

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Chapter1
Whilat
is
H,
IRIM,1
Chapt.er
Contents
Introduction
1
NorthAmerican
and
BritIsh
Models
ofHRM
SoftHRM
TheHarvardmodel.
Heeretal.
(US)Guest(UK)
HardHRM
TheMichiganmodel.Fombrun
etal,
(US)
2
Industrial
Relations
Perspectives.
on
HRM
Kochan
'5
frameworkfor
labour(elations
(US)
storey
on
HRMv.personnelmanagement
(UK)
3
The
Inftuence
of
Japanese
Management
Practices
OliverandWilkinson
4
TheEuropean
Envlronmen.t
ofHRM
BrewsterandBoumois
Summary
Study
QuestionsFurtherReadingNotes
 
Introduction
4WHAT15HRM?
H
UMAN
ResourceManagement(HRM)
i
anewwayofthinkingabouthowpeopleshould
be
managed
asemployees
.in
theworkplace.(Abrief
historyof
howthe
employer-employeerelationship
washandledbeforeHRMisdepicted
in
thetimeline
(Box
1.1).)
In
muchthesame
way
astherearedifferentroadsto
success,
HRM
is
notone
theory
but
an
evolving
setof
competingtheories.
HRM,asa
traditionof
thoughtall
managingpeople,ismostcommonlytracedbacktoseminalworkswritten
by
Ameri-canacademicsinthe
early
19805.
TheseAmericanandAmerican-inspiredtheories,ormodels.ofHRMaresometimessubdividedundertwoschoolsofthought.'hard'HRMand'soft'
HRM.
Bothoftheseschools
will
bediscussed
in
this
chapter.Inessence,hard
HR.l'I4ocuses
onmanagingandcontrollingemployees
soas
toachievetheorganiza-tion'sstrategicgoals,whilstsoftHRMgivesmorerecognitiontotheneedsofemployeesandtheim
portance
oftheircommitment
to
theorganization.Intheemploymentrelationship,employeescontract
their
labour
in
exchangeforvarioustypes
of
rewardsfrom
employers.
Whethertheyareworking
full
timeorpart
time,
employees
seektoobtainfromthe
employer
what
they
consider
tobe
equitabletermsandconditionsofemployment.Atth
minimum.
mostemployeesexpecttobemanagedandtreated
fairly,
Indeed,aslevelsofeducationbecomehigher.agreaterproportion
of
tbepopulationworld-wideexpectmorethanthis:
theyseek
a
rangeof
intrinsicrewardssuchasjobsatisfaction,adegreeofchallenge,asenseofcareerprogression,and.satisfyingrelationships
wlthco-workers,
HRMhasbeenproposed
both
as
.3
waytomeettheseexpectationsandasamoreeffective
way
ofmanagingemployees,
although
thereisconsiderabledisagreementas
to
howfar
HRM
can
beimplemented.
AdvocatesofHRMhavepresented
it
ashavingaroletoplayinboththeprivateandpublic
sectors.
Intheprivatesector,iftheemployer
fails
tomanagethehumanresource
well
enoughtocompetesuccessfully
in
the
market-place.thenultimatelythebusiness
will
failThecompany
may
decline.lowlywherecompetitionisweak.or
it
maybecomerapidlybankruptwherecompetitionisstrong.Thepublicsector,
like-
wise,hasan
interest
Ineffective
management
ofemployees,andthestandardsandquality
ofpublic-sectorservicesare
highly
dependent
onemployees'motivation,
skills,andserviceorientation.fiRM.therefore.
is
abouteffectivemanagement
of
theemploymentrelationhipandapplies
to
managementactivity
in
all
organizationalettings,evenunpaidandvoluntarywork.The
remainder
ofthischapterisanoverview
of
several
differenttheoriesandapproachestoHRM;subsequentchapterexploretheapplicationofHRMprinciplesandpracticesinorganizations
today.
Thetheories
covered
in
the
following
sectionscomefromsomeofthebest-knownNorthAmericanandBritishwritersonHRMandincludethe'soft'and'hard'
distinction,industrialrelations
perspectives,andaEuro-peanmodelofH.R,1v1.heinfluenceofJapanesemanagementpracticeson
ERM
is
also
 
Wl-IAT15HRM75
BOX1.1
UKPersonnelManagement/HiRMTlrnellne
1800$
Somepaternalist
elflpt0Ye.(S~UC:~
as
the'
R~wnt1ll!eand
Leverhulme
familiesstrongly
con-
cerned
abeut
thewelfare'oftheworkfor(;e~healthande:ducatlon,forexampie,
WIM~
seen
aspart
aF
their
responsibility.
Butemployees'weifareprimarily
theconcern
01
outside
1n.stitUtioflS
and
Individual,):,
particularly
the
church.
charities,
and
welfare.
workers.
1900-3~
Formationand
conselldatlenof
personnelmanagementasapmfeS5ional
body.
Introduc-
tionof
more5ystematic
recordkeeping
andmanagement
ofthe
humanresource..Role,
of
'looking
after'
workers,
previouslythedomainofwomen.
develops
re.spe~bilityatthe
nlgherlevelsof
responsibilityas
'man's
work'.
1939-45
InterveAtloOI
by
national
government
Inreglulatfng
employment
and
schemes
for
sus't£lfnflig
and
impl:twing
mo.rateIn
the
workplac.e.Restrictio[}sovertrade
union
actfvity,.
1946-59
Post-SecondWorldWar
reccnstructlon,
In1946.InstituteofLabourchanges
its
name
totheInstituteofPersonnel
Management
(IPM).Growthef
cQllectivebargainIng.
UnemploYiiI)l!ntlow.
Personnelmanagement
asmanpower
planning.
1960-18
Personnelrtlanag·emen~Jed
by
skilledindustrial
relations
negotiat(}rs.
Pe6pd
ofttade,
unionll'lilitanCY''andIndustrialrelatlon~umest..lrrcreasedgovernmentlegislatIonGilempleyment
matters
:alild
gnilwlngunernpleyrnent,
1970-89
Introduction
and
development
ofhuman
resource
management
asanicl'li!ologY1lnda
pre
cription
for
managIng
the
employment
relationship..
Unemployment
aroundthree
million.
Goverlllment
legtslatlon
curtail1ng
the.freedomsandpow:ersoftradeunions.
199
0
-99
In
1994.tI1elnstftuteof
Personnel
Management([PM)
and
InstituteofTrainingand
Dellelopment(lTD)mergeto
form
the
Ilnst1itr1te
of
Persol1F.1el
and
Development(IPD).
H'umaQResourCi.
Management
becomes
rnnre
(onsolidatedasan
orthodoxy.
althgugh
many
arganizatiol1sst1ll
use
the
ofderte:rm
of
'persEmne:I'
mana-gement'
and
very
few
appl,y
HRM
peildes
<:;ohe('enMy
orlilonsistently.
introducedbecausethejapaneemethodshavebeensostronglyinfluentialinprompt-ingWesternexecutivesandacademicstoreflectonhowbu
sinesses
arerun
by
compaT~inghowhumanresourcesaremanagedintheEast
with
howtheyaremanaged
in
the
We
t.

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