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Corporate Strategy

Corporate Strategy

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Published by Shrey Ghosal

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Published by: Shrey Ghosal on Jun 18, 2012
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UNIT 2 INTRODUCTION TO CORPORATESTRATEGYObjectivesAfter reading this unit, you should be able to:! explain the concept and nature of corporate management;! acquaint yourself with the components and functions of corporate strategy;! distinguish different levels of corporate strategy;! identify various kinds of corporate strategies;! discuss various schools of thought on corporate strategy formation; and! underline significance and limitations of corporate strategy.Structure2.1 Introduction2.2 Concept and Nature of Corporate Strategy2.3 Components of Corporate Strategy2.4 Functions of Corporate Strategy2.5 Levels of Corporate Strategy2.6 Kinds of Corporate Strategy2.7 Schools of Thought on Corporate Strategy formation2.8 Significance of Corporate Strategy2.9 Limitations of Corporate Strategy2.10 Summary2.11 Key Words2.12 Self Assessment Questions2.13 Further Readings2.1 INTRODUCTION
 
The twenty fifth National Business Conference sponsored by the Harvard BusinessSchool Association in 1955 made one of the earliest attempts to discuss the concept of 
strategy. In 1965, Ansoff published a book “Corporate Strategy” which was based on
 
his experiences at the Lock heed Aircraft corporation. Chandler’s historical study of 
 the development of some of the American enterprises proposed strategy as one of themost important variables in the study of organizations. From the literature on strategicmanagement, it is evident that strategic planning refers to the management processesin organizations through which the future impact of change is determined and currentdecisions are made to reach a designed future.2.2 CONCEPT AND NATURE OF CORPORATESTRATEGY
The word strategy is derived from the Greek word “strategtia” which was used first
 around 400 B.C. This connotes the art and science of directing military forces. In1819Introduction to CorporateStrategybusiness parlance, there is no definite meaning assigned to strategy. A few definitionsstated below may clarify the concept of corporate strategy:
KENNETH ANDREWS(1955), “The pattern of objectives, purpose, goals and the
 major policies and plans for achieving these goals stated in such a way so as to define
what business the company is in or is to be and the kind of company it is or is to be”
 This definition refers to the business definition.
IGOR ANSOFF(1965) explained the concept of strategy as “the common thread
 among the organizations, activities and product markets, that defines the essentialnature of business that the organization was or pla
nned to be in future”.
 
 
The definition stressed on the commonality of approach that exists in diverseorganizational activities.
HENRY MINTZBERG (1987) explains that “strategies are not always the outcome
 
of rational planning. ………….a pattern in a stream of 
decisions and actions.The definition makes a distinction between intended strategies and emergentstrategies.
ANSOFF (1984) “Basically a strategy is a set of decision making rules for the
 guidance of organizational behavior.This definition has changed drastically what Ansoff had said earlier in 1965.
William Glueck defines the term strategy as “the unified, comprehensive and
 integrated plan that relates the strategic advantage of the firm to the challenges of theenvironment and is designed to ensure that basic objectives of the enterprise are
achieved through implementation process”
 The definition lays stress on the following:! It is a unified, comprehensive and integrated plan! Challenges of the environment are seen in the context of strategic advantage! Strategy ensures achievement of basic objectives through proper implementationprocessFrom the definitions discussed above, we may identify the following elements:! It is a plan or course of action or a set of decision rules.! It is derived from its policies, objectives and goals.! It is related to persue those activities which move an organization from itscurrent position to a desired future state.! It is concerned with the requisite resources to implement a plan.
The term “Corporate Strategy”
is gaining importance in the era of privatization,

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