past by arranging the artifacts chronologically through the help of the differenttechniques of dating from the biological and physical sciences. Archeologytraces cultural changes in different societies and provides explanations forthese changes.While the Archeologist is interested in knowing the past culture, Ethnologyis interested in knowing contemporary societies and cultures. Ethnologyseeks to understand and to explain how and why people differ in their waysof living. Ethnology studies similarities and differences between differentsocieties and cultures at different point of time and at a given time.There are two types of ethnologists: the ethnographer and the ethnohistorian. The ethnographer is concerned basically in a detaileddescriptive study and explanation of the many aspects of the customarybehavior and practice of the different people he has observed. The ethnohistorian, on the other hand is more interested in studying the changes thatoccur in a given culture at different points of time. He studies writtendocument, reports, accounts, diaries, writings and government records toestablish sequence of events and changes in the culture of a given people.Unlike the historians, he reconstructs history of a people who might nowhave left written records. Anthropological linguistics is interested inknowing the origin, development and structure of the different languages ofthe world, past and present. It studies descriptions of a language and theways the language develops and influences each other with the passing oftime. It studies similarities and differences between languages and notesthe interrelationships between language of the people and its influence onthe on the other aspects of culture.Applied anthropology is a sub-area of Cultural Anthropology. It utilizes thefindings of other anthropologists to solve contemp[orary socio-economic andpolitical problems. Applied anthropology tests anthropological theories andresearch methods. Application of anthropological theories and researchmethods are usually made in underdeveloped countries where planned changesare being implemented. Most applied anthropologists involve themselves inplanned changes in the areas of public health, agriculture and culturalintegration of cultural minorities or migrants.
EARLY HISTORY OF MAN
Alexander Pope in his “An Essay of Man” wrote that the proper study of mankind isman. This statement would mean that if we want to learn about man, we shouldstudy man. But anthropologists believed that to know more about man and hisnature, they have to study his near relatives and his ancestors. Hence the studyof primates and fossils of man to throw more light about man’s biologicalbackground and to seek more about pre-human roots of social and physicalexistence.
The goal of Primatology, the study of primates( such as tarsiers, lemurs,monkeys, and apes), is to understand how different primates have adaptedanatomically and behaviorally to their environments. All living primatesincluding humans evolved from earlier primates that are now extinct. So byobserving the living primates of today, their differences and resemblance, we maybe able to infer how and why humans diverged from the other primates.