At Pylos, Telemachus and Mentor (Athena in disguise) witness an impressive religious ceremony in whichdozens of bulls are sacrificed to Poseidon, the god of the sea. Although Telemachus has little experience withpublic speaking, Mentor gives him the encouragement that he needs to approach Nestor, the city’s king, and askhim about Odysseus. Nestor, however, has no information about the Greek hero. He recounts that after the fall of Troy a falling-out occurred between Agamemnon and Menelaus, the two Greek brothers who had led theexpedition. Menelaus set sail for Greece immediately, while Agamemnon decided to wait a day and continuesacrificing on the shores of Troy. Nestor went with Menelaus, while Odysseus stayed with Agamemnon, and he hasheard no news of Odysseus. He says that he can only pray that Athena will show Telemachus the kindness thatshe showed Odysseus. He adds that he has heard that suitors have taken over the prince’s house in Ithaca andthat he hopes that Telemachus will achieve the renown in defense of his father that Orestes, son of Agamemnon,won in defense of his father. Telemachus then asks Nestor about Agamemnon’s fate. Nestor explains that Agamemnon returned from Troy to find that Aegisthus, a base coward who remained behind while the Greeks fought in Troy, had seduced andmarried his wife, Clytemnestra. With her approval, Aegisthus murdered Agamemnon. He would have then takenover Agamemnon’s kingdom had not Orestes, who was in exile in Athens, returned and killed Aegisthus andClytemnestra. Nestor holds the courage of Orestes up as an example for Telemachus. He sends his own sonPisistratus along to accompany Telemachus to Sparta, and the two set out by land the next day. Athena, whoreveals her divinity by shedding the form of Mentor and changing into an eagle before the entire court of Pylos,stays behind to protect Telemachus’s ship and its crew.
Summary: Book 4
In Sparta, the king and queen, Menelaus and Helen, are celebrating the separate marriages of their sonand daughter. They happily greet Pisistratus and Telemachus, the latter of whom they soon recognize as the sonof Odysseus because of the clear family resemblance. As they all feast, the king and queen recount withmelancholy the many examples of Odysseus’s cunning at Troy. Helen recalls how Odysseus dressed as a beggar toinfiltrate the city’s walls. Menelaus tells the famous story of the Trojan horse, Odysseus’s masterful gambit thatallowed the Greeks to sneak into Troy and slaughter the Trojans. The following day, Menelaus recounts his ownreturn from Troy. He says that, stranded in Egypt, he was forced to capture Proteus, the divine Old Man of the Sea.Proteus told him the way back to Sparta and then informed him of the fates of Agamemnon and Ajax, anotherGreek hero, who survived Troy only to perish back in Greece. Proteus also told him news of Odysseus—that he wasstill alive but was imprisoned by Calypso on her island. Buoyed by this report, Telemachus and Pisistratus return toPylos to set sail for Ithaca.Meanwhile, the suitors at Odysseus’s house learn of Telemachus’s voyage and prepare to ambush himupon his return. The herald Medon overhears their plans and reports them to Penelope. She becomes distraughtwhen she reflects that she may soon lose her son in addition to her husband, but Athena sends a phantom in theform of Penelope’s sister, Iphthime, to reassure her. Iphthime tells her not to worry, for the goddess will protect Telemachus.
Analysis: Books 3–4
The setting broadens in Books 3 and 4 as Telemachus sets out on his own brief odyssey around southernGreece to learn of his father’s fate. Fittingly, this expansion in setting prompts an expansion in the story itself, aseach of Telemachus’s hosts adds his own story to the
Here, as throughout the poem, storytelling servesthe important function of supplying both the reader and the characters with key details about Odysseus’s travails.Additionally, Nestor’s, Menelaus’s, and Helen’s recountings of various episodes related to the Trojan War tiethe
to cultural legends with which Homer’s audience would have been extremely familiar.