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CALIBRATION AND DATA PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR GROUND PENETRATING RADAR SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS IN DISPERSIVE GROUND

CALIBRATION AND DATA PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR GROUND PENETRATING RADAR SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS IN DISPERSIVE GROUND

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Published by Chuck Oden
PhD dissertation
PhD dissertation

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Published by: Chuck Oden on Jun 19, 2012
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04/29/2013

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 CALIBRATION AND DATA PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR GROUND PENETRATING RADAR SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS INDISPERSIVE GROUND byCharles P. Oden
 
 iiA thesis submitted to the Faculty and Board of Trustees of the Colorado School of Mines in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy(Geophysical Engineering).Golden, ColoradoDate:____________ Signed:____________________ Charles P. OdenApproved:_________________ Dr. Gary R. OlhoeftThesis Advisor Golden, ColoradoDate:____________  ______________________ Dr. Terence K. YoungProfessor and HeadDepartment of Geophysics
 
 iiiABSTRACTThe ground penetrating radar (GPR) method has the highest resolution of anystandard geophysical technique. One of the biggest difficulties with this method is thatthe depth of penetration can be limited, especially in dispersive ground. Further, imagesobtained from dispersive ground usually have less spatial resolution due to dispersion(attenuation and dilation) of the waveforms traveling in the subsurface. This dissertationdescribes steps that can be taken to predict subsurface waveforms and improve thesubsurface images in lossy ground. The work here has been tailored for use with theU. S. Geological Survey RTDGPR (a real-time digitizing GPR specifically designed for use in conductive ground), but the methodology can be applied to properly characterizeand process data from essentially any impulse GPR system.To help estimate the shape of the subsurface waves, the response of the RTDGPR electronics were calibrated using laboratory measurements. The antennas were calibratedusing numerical simulations because laboratory tests of antennas require prohibitivelyexpensive apparatus. Because the RTDGPR antennas are ground-coupled, their responsechanges as a function of the ground properties directly beneath the antennas. Therefore,many numerical simulations were made to determine the antenna response for a widerange of ground conditions. The accuracy of the GPR system calibration was tested bycomparison with actual data recorded in air and over water.With a calibrated GPR system and knowledge of the ground properties near theantennas, the subsurface waveforms may be calculated. A non-linear inversion algorithmwas constructed to estimate the material properties near the antennas using the earlyarrivals in the GPR trace. The limitations to the use of the inversion algorithm that arisefrom horizontal and vertical heterogeneity are discussed.The remainder of the dissertation addresses methods to illustrate the usefulness of information about the subsurface waveforms. Since most GPR surveys are interpreted in

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