Adamson University Chemical Engineering Student Society
The Arrhenius Theory
Acids are substances whichproduce hydrogen ions in solution.
Bases are substances whichproduces hydroxide ions insolution.
The Bronsted-Lowry Theory
An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion)donor.
A base is a proton (hydrogen atom)acceptor.
The Lewis Theory
An acid is an electron pairacceptor.
A base is an electron pair donor.Strong Acids
100% dissociation of H
100% dissociation of OHWeak Acids
not completely dissociatedWeak Base
OH not completely dissociated
(acid) (conjugate base)K
] = [A
] = dissolved species[HA] = un-dissolved species[H
pH = -log [H
pH < 7 AcidicpH = 7 NeutralpH > 7 Base
BOH = B
= un-dissolved weak base[B
] = [OH] = dissolved species[OH
pOH = -log [OH
Degree of Ionization
Stronger acid or stronger base = Greater % ionization
% α =
a or b
a or b
c = initial concentration of acid or base
α = degree of dissociation
quick, accurate and widely used way of measuringthe amount of substance.
Components of the Titrimetric determination
a standard reagent of knownconcentration that reacts with the analyte. Thereaction and its stoichiometric relationship with theanalyte must be known.
a compound of ultra purepurity that is used to
a compound that detects thepresence of
titrant. It must not interfere withthe reaction of the titrant with the analyte.
•Is an ultrapure compound that serves as the
reference material for a titrimetric method of analysis.
standards with less purity than primarystandards but can still be used in for standardizingtitrants.
A process in which the excess of astandard solution used to consume an analyte isdetermined by titration with a second standardsolution.
Errors in Chemical AnalysesAccuracy
closeness of the measurement to the trueor accepted value.
Closeness of each results obtained in thesame manner.
Absolute (E) and relative errors(E
E = x