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Introductory Course for Analytical Chemistry

Introductory Course for Analytical Chemistry

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Published by John Aguila

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Published by: John Aguila on Jun 19, 2012
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10/13/2012

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Adamson University Chemical Engineering Student Society
HarveyArcilla&ErrolSecapuri|2012
Analytical Chemistry
It is the science of determining what matter is andhow much of it exist. It concerned with theidentification (qualitative) and qualification of matter.
Qualitative AC
-- about the composition of sample.
Quantitative AC
-- about the amount of the sample.
Sample
 – 
Bulk material containing the specie of interest.
Analyte
 
 – 
The specie of interest.
Matrix
 
 – 
Part of a sample containing analyte.
Different Methods of analysis1.
 
Classical or Traditional (old tech.)
 
Volumetric Methods (Titration)
 
Gravimetric Methods
2.
 
Modern or Instrumental (more realiable,use of machines)
 
Electroanalytical methods
 
Optical/Spectroscopic methods
 
Chromatographic Method (separatemulti-compounds)
Units of Concentration:1.
 
% compositiona.
 
%

-
or

 
     
 
x 100Or
      
x 100b.
 
%

-

 
    
x 100c.
 
%

-

 
    
 d.
 
PPM (parts per million)1ppm =
    
 
x 10
6
e.
 
PPB (parts per billion)1ppb =
    
 
x 10
9
A.
 
Molarity (M)M =
    
 B.
 
Molality (m)m =
    
 C.
 
Normality (N)N =
    
 
Equivalent weight =

 
Conversion of M --> N :
N = M x f 
D.
 
Mole Fraction ()=
number of moles
 =
total number of moles
Diluting Solutions:C
1
V
1
= C
2
V
2
C
1
=
initial concentration
C
2
=
final concentration
V
1
=
initial volume
V
2
=
final volume
Chemical Equilibria:A.
 
Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant(K
eq
)aA + bB
 
 
cC + dD K
eq
=

 B.
 
Acid
 – 
Base Equilibria
 
 
Adamson University Chemical Engineering Student Society
HarveyArcilla&ErrolSecapuri|2012
The Arrhenius Theory
 
Acids are substances whichproduce hydrogen ions in solution.
 
Bases are substances whichproduces hydroxide ions insolution.
The Bronsted-Lowry Theory
 
An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion)donor.
 
A base is a proton (hydrogen atom)acceptor.
The Lewis Theory
 
An acid is an electron pairacceptor.
 
A base is an electron pair donor.Strong Acids
 – 
100% dissociation of H
+
 Strong Bases
 – 
100% dissociation of OHWeak Acids
 – 
H
+
not completely dissociatedWeak Base
 – 
OH not completely dissociated
Acidity Constant
 HA
(aq)
= H
+(ag)
+ A
-(aq)
 (acid) (conjugate base)K
a
=
 
 [H
+
] = [A
-
] = dissolved species[HA] = un-dissolved species[H
+
] =
 
 pH = -log [H
+
]
pH Acidity
pH < 7 AcidicpH = 7 NeutralpH > 7 Base
Basicity Constant
BOH = B
+
+ OH
-
[BOH]
 
= un-dissolved weak base[B
+
] = [OH] = dissolved species[OH
-
] =
 
 pOH = -log [OH
-
]
Degree of Ionization
(α)
 Stronger acid or stronger base = Greater % ionization
% α =
   
x 100=
        
x 100K
a or b
= C
a or b
 
α
2
c = initial concentration of acid or base
α = degree of dissociation
 
Titration
•A
quick, accurate and widely used way of measuringthe amount of substance.
Components of the Titrimetric determination
Titrant
 – 
a standard reagent of knownconcentration that reacts with the analyte. Thereaction and its stoichiometric relationship with theanalyte must be known.
Standards
 – 
a compound of ultra purepurity that is used to
standardized
the titrant.
Indicator
 – 
a compound that detects thepresence of 
excess
titrant. It must not interfere withthe reaction of the titrant with the analyte.
Primary Standard
•Is an ultrapure compound that serves as the
reference material for a titrimetric method of analysis.
Secondary standards
•Titration
standards with less purity than primarystandards but can still be used in for standardizingtitrants.
Back Titration
 – 
 
A process in which the excess of astandard solution used to consume an analyte isdetermined by titration with a second standardsolution.
Errors in Chemical AnalysesAccuracy
 – 
closeness of the measurement to the trueor accepted value.
 Precision
 – 
Closeness of each results obtained in thesame manner.
 Absolute (E) and relative errors(E
r
)
E = x
i
- x
t
 E=
  
x 100

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