Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Beam Deflection

Beam Deflection

Ratings: (0)|Views: 17|Likes:
Published by Jacob Tuna Nguyen

More info:

Published by: Jacob Tuna Nguyen on Jun 19, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/30/2015

pdf

text

original

 
--------------------------
....
r
Chapter8
DEFLECTIONOF
BEAMS'BY
INTEGRATION
P
B
A
...._.'''&-
--
,,'
~.,
"4,~
,.~ZOi<
X
L
(a)
p
J
B
A
~
PA
=
00
PB
(b)
,
x
Fig.8.1
,I
8.1.INTRODUCTION
WesawinSec.4.4thataprismaticbeamsubjectedtopurebendingisbentintoanarcofcircleandthat,withintheelasticrange,thecurvatureoftheneutralsurfacemaybeexpressedas
1
P
M
EI
(4.21)whereMisthebendingmoment,
E
themodulusofelasticity,and
I
themomentofinertiaofth~crosssectionaboutitsneutralaxis.Whenabeamissubjectedtoatransverseloading,
Eq.
(4.21)remainsvalidforanygiventransversesection,providedthatSaint-Venant'sprinci-pleapplies.However,boththebendingmomentandthecurvatureoftheneutralsurfacewillvaryfromsectiontosection.Denotingby
x
thedis-tanceofthesectionfromtheleftendofthebeam,wewrite
1
M(x)
(8.1)
=
PEI
Consider,forexample,acantileverbeamABoflengthLsubjectedtoaconcentratedloadPatitsfreeendA(Fig.
8.1a).
Wehave
M(x)
=
=Px.
and,substitutinginto(IU),.
1
Px
p
EI
whichshowsthatthecurvatureoftheneutralsurfacevarieslinearlywith
x,
fromzeroatA,where
PA
itselfisinfinite,to
-PLIEI
atB,where
IpBI
=
EIIPL
(Fig.
8.1b).
ConsidernowtheoverhangingbeamADofFig.8.2,whichsupportstwoconcentratedloadsasshown.Fromthefree-bodydiagramofthebeam(Fig.
8.3a),
wefindthatthereactionsatthesupportsare
RA
=
1kNand
Rc
=
5kN,respectively,anddrawthecorrespondingbending-moment
396
 
is
)f
e
diagr~[l1,(F.'ig">
,3b,),.
,'Wenote
frpm
,the,di~gI3.}llthat
M"
and,thusthe,curva-
to/!(q~
thel:>1~JH'
~e~)ero<;atbothi~~~~f!,t4ebeam,.and.alsoat~,pomtEIORll.tedat~'"
;:;;
1,m..BetweenAanq:E~~~L~el!diJ!g,:!Uomentis:positive
and
tpe,
beamiscqD,saMe~p~ard;J:>.ef:\\'l~i~n'i:E.l:apd",p,;thebendingmoment,isnegativeandthebcealll.is.coneavedown~al1d;Wig.
8,30).
Weiaisonotethat:thelargestvalueofthecurvature(i.e.,thesmallest.valueoftheradiusofcurvature)occursatthesupportC,where
IMI
ismaximum.
,1
FromtheinformationQb~ined,o~.tScu:r~at'4re,wemaygetafairly
goodideaof-the.shape
ofthedeformed.beamivHowever,theanalysisanddesi&lof,~bea9;l.usPl!p~.rellW.~,~ore;preF!~,e,Wor;ma9-p,Il,pn
th
ede
jlecti(J,11
a~a
f9~'
~lope,?!
tn~keaIll',Il-t
yafio~J!9intsTIP~part~cular~p?rtancejs,
th!t
knowledge,ofthe
n.!ax~rTt~rri
de_flecpio?l8f,'t94tl1oe;un.nthis.chapterwe,shll.ll:
uS~'
Ec{.'(8.'1}
'to'
olltai~'
ai~i~ti~d'be~e~n'ihedeflection
y
meas~edat~givenpoint
Q
ontheaxisofili,1((?~~~'r~r-,dh~distance
x
ofthatpointfromsomefixedorigin(Fig.8.4).The-relationobtainedistheequationofthe
elasticcurve,
i.e.,theequationofthecurveintowhichtheaxisofthebeamistransformedunderthe'giY'eIfl1Qlimrig'
Fig.'
f
8:
4b).
t
.i:,.','.,
S-..£,_:l;
8.2.EQUATIONOFTHEELASTICCURVE
~,C'f
>i
1i,;;:-
'-:'oJ,
Wefirstrecallfromelementarycalculusthatthecurvatureofaplanecurveatapoint
Q(x,
y)of
tHeJ.curvelmay
~.e
expressed
as
d
2
y".
1;.
"-a-x-
2~"
»:
p_~:-[
i'-T;-(-d!l---=-r]~3/"2
"~L~
'i<
l~~,"
ii:,
<~
f-
f;~
(8.2)
I,
wheredYVdxand
d,2
y
ldi
2
'are
tHe
fit~tifimdsecond'derivativesofthe'func-tion
y(x)
representedbythat.curve.But,iwtheLcaseof-the'elasticeurveofabeam;the,slope'
dyy
dx
isYe1-Ymall-and'itssquare-isnegligible'comparedtounity.Wemaywrite..therefore,,
,,1
..C-.',c;t¥y",
'r;.-:-
d;r~"
Substituting;'for1/,0'from(8.3)into
('8:1),'
~ehave','(8.3)
2kN
I'~_,
=
D
(804)
Fig.8.2
B
Rc
=
5kN
(a)
M
3kNom
Theequationobtained
is
a
sec6~d~orderlineardifferentialequ~tion;,itisthegoverningdifferentialequationfor
th~
elastic.curve:.'
j>
l,\.~~\",I','.
p_
,.:;.-1_
.f;ltshouldbenotedthat,
in
thischapter'andtheAext,'y'representsaverticaldisplacement,whileitwasusedinprevious.chapterstorepresent.thedistanceofagivenpoint-in-atransversesectionfromtheneutralaxis,of,thatsection.
Fig.
8.3
!I
P
z....
l
..'."C'IIIilJIil~_,"
curve
(b)
Fig.8.4
 
398
MECHANICSOFMATERIALS
Fig.8.5
r
IYA=olIYB=OI
(b)
Overhangingbeam
(c)
Cantileverbeam
Fig.8.6Boundaryconditionsforstaticallydeterminatebeams.
Theproduct
'El
isknownasthe
flexuralrigidity
and,
if
itvariesalongthebeam,asinthecaseofabeamofvaryingdepth,wemustexpressitas
a
functionof
x
beforeproceedingtointegrateEq.(8.4).However,inthecaseofaprismaticbeam,whichisthecaseconsideredhere,theflexuralrigidityisconstant.WemaythusmultiplybothmembersofEq.(8.4)by
El
andintegratein
x.
Wewrite
dy
x
El-d
=I
M(x)'dx+C
1
x
0'
(8.5)
whereC
1
saconstantofintegration.Denotingby
8(x)
theangle,meas-uredinradians,thatthetangentat
Q
to'theelasticcurveformswiththehorizontal(Fig.
8.5),
andrecallingthatthisangleisverysmall,wehave
!~
tan8~
8(x)
Thus,wemaywriteEq.
(8.5)
inthealternateform
El8(x)
=
IX
M(x)dx
+
C
1
o
(8.5')
IntegratingbothmembersofEq.
(8.5)
in
x,
wehave
Eiy
=
~x
[~X
M(x)dx
+
C1Jdx
+
C
2
Ely
=
IX
dxL"M(x)dx
+
c1x
+
C
2
o
0
whereC
2
isasecondconstant,andwherethefirsttermintheright-handmemberrepresentsthefunctionof
x
obtainedbyintegratingtwicein
x
thebendingmoment
M(x).
If
itwerenotforthefactthattheconstantsC
1
andC
2
areasyetundetermined,Eq.(8.6)woulddefinethedeflectionofthebeamatany.givenpOin\,Q,andEq.
(8.5)
or
(8.5')
wouldsimilarlydefinetheslopeofthebeamat
Q.
TheconstantsC
1
andC
2
aredeterminedfromthe
boundaryconditions
or,moreprecisely,fromtheconditionsimposedonthebeambyitssup-ports.Limitingouranalysisinthissectionto
staticallydeterminatebeams,
i.e.,tobeamssupportedinsuchawaythatthereactionsatthesupportsmaybeobtainedbythemethodsofstatics,wenotethatonlythreetypes-ofbeamsneedtobeconsideredhere(Fig.8.6):
(a)
the
simplysupportedbeam,(b)
the
overhangingbeam,
and
(c)
the
cantileverbeam.
Inthefirsttwocases,thesupportsconsistofapinandbracketatAand,ofarollerat
B,
andrequirethatthedeflectionbezeroateachofthesepoints.Lettingfirst
x
=
x
A'
Y
=
YA
=
0inEq.
(8.6),
andthen
x
=
x
B'
y
=
YB
=
0inthesameequation,weobtaintwoequationswhichmaybesolvedforC
1
and
C
2
Inthecaseofthecantileverbeam(Fig.
8.6c),
wenotethatboththedeflectionandtheslopeatAmustbezero.Letting
x
=
x
A'
Y
=
YA
=
0inEq.
(8.6),
andx
=
x
A'
8
=
BA
=
0inEq.
(8.5'),
weobtainagaintwoequationswhichmaybesolvedforC
1
and
C
2
(8.6)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->