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Huxley Julian Unesco

Huxley Julian Unesco

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Published by Gilberto Mazzoli

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Published by: Gilberto Mazzoli on Jun 19, 2012
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02/01/2013

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UNESCOITS PURPOSEAND ITS PHILOSOPHY
bY
JULIAN HUXLEY
PREPARATORY COMMISSION OFTHE UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL,SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION1946
 
CHAPTER I
ABACKGROUNDFORUNESCO
3
 
A BACKGROUND FOR UNESCO
I. THE AIMS LAID DOWN FOR UNESCOUnesco-the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation-is by its title committed to two sets of aims.In the first place, it is international, and must serve the ends andobjects of the United Nations, which in the long perspective areworld ends, ends for humanity as a whole.And secondly it mustfoster and promote all aspects of education, science, and culture,in the widest sense of those words.Its Constitution defines these aims more fully. The preamblebegins with Mr. Attlee’s noble words-“since wars begin in theminds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peacemust be constructed” : it continues by stressing the dangers ofignorance-“ignorance of each other’s ways and lives has been acommon cause, throughout the history of mankind, of that suspicionand mistrust between the peoples of the world through which theirdifferences have all too often broken into war” : and then proceedsto point out that the late war was made possible by the denial ofcertain basic principles-“the democratic principles of the dignity,equality and mutual respect of men”-and by the substitutionfor them of “the doctrine of the inequality of men and races.”From these premises it proceeds to point out that “thewide diffusion of culture, and the education of humanity for justiceand liberty and peace, are indispensable to the dignity of man andconstitute a sacred duty which all the nations must fulfil in a spiritof mutual assistance and concern” : and draws the notable con-clusion, never before embodied in an official document, that apeace “based exclusively upon the political and economic arrange-ments of governments” would be inadequate, since it could not“secure the unanimous, lasting and sincere support of the peoplesof the world,”and that “the peace must therefore be founded, ifit is not to fail, upon the intellectual and moral solidarity of man-kind.”And finally, the States which are parties to the Constitutionassert their belief “in full and equal opportunities of education forall, in the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth, and in the free ex-change of ideas and knowledge” : they agree “to develop andincrease the means of communication between their peoples and toemploy these means for the purposes of mutual understanding and atruer and more perfect knowledge of their lives” : and they “herebycreate the United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganisation,”whose purpose is then specifically laid down asthat of “‘advancing, through the educational and scientific andcultural relations of the peoples of the world, the objectives ofinternational peace and of the common welfare of mankind, forwhich the United Nations Organisation was established and whichits charter proclaims.”In Article I of the Constitution the methods for realising theseaims are broadly defined under three heads.5

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